Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics

Editor-in-Chief: Schöner, Gregor


Covered by SCOPUS


CiteScore 2018: 2.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.336
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.707

ICV 2017: 99.90

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2081-4836
See all formats and pricing
More options …

A receptionist robot for Brazilian people: study on interaction involving illiterates

Gabriele Trovato
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, #41-304, 17 Kikui-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0044, Japan
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Josue G. Ramos
  • Center for Information Techonology Renato Archer - CTI Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP - 65), Campinas, 13069-901, Săo Paulo, Brazil
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Helio Azevedo
  • Center for Information Techonology Renato Archer - CTI Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP - 65), Campinas, 13069-901, Săo Paulo, Brazil
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Artemis Moroni
  • Center for Information Techonology Renato Archer - CTI Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP - 65), Campinas, 13069-901, Săo Paulo, Brazil
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Silvia Magossi
  • Center for Information Techonology Renato Archer - CTI Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP - 65), Campinas, 13069-901, Săo Paulo, Brazil
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Reid Simmons
  • Robotics Institute, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States of America
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hiroyuki Ishii / Atsuo Takanishi
  • Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering, and with the Humanoid Robotics Institute (HRI), Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-05-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjbr-2017-0001

Abstract

The receptionist job, consisting in providing useful indications to visitors in a public office, is one possible employment of social robots. The design and the behaviour of robots expected to be integrated in human societies are crucial issues, and they are dependent on the culture and society in which the robot should be deployed. We study the factors that could be used in the design of a receptionist robot in Brazil, a country with a mix of races and considerable gaps in economic and educational level. This inequality results in the presence of functional illiterate people, unable to use reading, writing and numeracy skills. We invited Brazilian people, including a group of functionally illiterate subjects, to interact with two types of receptionists differing in physical appearance (agent v mechanical robot) and in the sound of the voice (human like v mechanical). Results gathered during the interactions point out a preference for the agent, for the human-like voice and a more intense reaction to stimuli by illiterates. These results provide useful indications that should be considered when designing a receptionist robot, as well as insights on the effect of illiteracy in the interaction.

Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; illiteracy; education; service robotics; socially assistive robotics; anthropomorphism; uncanny valley; receptionist

References

  • [1] T. Fong, I. Nourbakhsh, and K. Dautenhahn, A survey of socially interactive robots, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 42, 3-4 (2003) 143-166Google Scholar

  • [2] D. Feil-Seifer and M. J. Mataric, Defining socially assistive robotics, in 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (2005) 465-468.Google Scholar

  • [3] R. Gockley, A. Bruce, J. Forlizzi, M. Michalowski, A. Mundell, S. Rosenthal, B. Sellner, R. Simmons, K. Snipes, A. Schultz, and J. Wang, Designing robots for long-term social interaction, in 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots (2005) 1338-1343.Google Scholar

  • [4] The Big Picture: This hotel is staffed by robots. IEEE Spectrum, 52, 10 (2015) 18-19Google Scholar

  • [5] T. Hashimoto, S. Hitramatsu, T. Tsuji, and H. Kobayashi, Development of the Face Robot SAYA for Rich Facial Expressions, in SICE-ICASE 2006 International Joint Conference (2006) 5423-5428.Google Scholar

  • [6] T. Ando, A. Araki, M. Kanoh, Y. Tomoto, and T. Nakamura, Relationship Between Mechadroid Type C3 and Human Beings Based on Physiognomic Features, Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics, 14, 7 (2010) 869-876Google Scholar

  • [7] IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2010: Características da Populaçăo e dos Domicílios - Resultados do Universo. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro. ISSN / ISBN: 01043145 (in Portuguese), 2010Google Scholar

  • [8] IBGE, Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios: Sintese de indiadores: 2012. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar

  • [9] UNESCO, Education for All; Literacy for life. The EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006, UNESCO Publishing 6:158.Google Scholar

  • [10] A. Cree, A. Kay, and J. Steward, The Economic and Social Cost of Illiteracy; A Snapshot of Illiteracy in a Global Context. Grandville, MI: World Literacy Foundation, 2012.Google Scholar

  • [11] P. Flandorfer, Population Ageing and Socially Assistive Robots for Elderly Persons: The Importance of Sociodemographic Factors for User Acceptance, International Journal of Population Research (2012) p. e829835Google Scholar

  • [12] S. Reppou and G. Karagiannis, Social Inclusion with Robots: A RAPP Case Study Using NAO for Technology Illiterate Elderly at Ormylia Foundation, in Progress in Automation, Robotics and Measuring Techniques, R. Szewczyk, C. Zieliński, and M. Kaliczyńska (Ed.) Springer International Publishing, 2015, 233-241.Google Scholar

  • [13] C. F. DiSalvo, F. Gemperle, J. Forlizzi, and S. Kiesler, All Robots Are Not Created Equal: The Design and Perception of Humanoid Robot Heads, in Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques, New York, NY, USA (2002) 321-326.Google Scholar

  • [14] W. A. Bainbridge, J. W. Hart, E. S. Kim, and B. Scassellati, The Benefits of Interactions with Physically Present Robots over Video-Displayed Agents, Int J of Soc Robotics, 3, 1, (2011) 41-52Google Scholar

  • [15] J. Li, The benefit of being physically present: A survey of experimental works comparing copresent robots, telepresent robots and virtual agents, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 77 (2015) 23-37Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [16] T. Minato, M. Shimada, H. Ishiguro, and S. Itakura, Development of an Android Robot for Studying Human-Robot Interaction, in 17th International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems (2004) 424-434Google Scholar

  • [17] M. L.Walters, D. S. Syrdal, K. Dautenhahn, R. te Boekhorst, and K. L. Koay, Avoiding the uncanny valley: robot appearance, personality and consistency of behavior in an attention-seeking homescenario for a robot companion, Auton Robot, 24, 2 (2008) 159-178CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18] F. Hegel, M. Lohse, and B. Wrede, Effects of visual appearance on the attribution of applications in social robotics, in The 18th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (2009) 64-71.Google Scholar

  • [19] F. Kaplan, Who is afraid of the humanoid? Investigating cultural differences in the acceptance of robots, International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, 1, 3 (2004) 465-480Google Scholar

  • [20] M. L. Walters, D. S. Syrdal, K. L. Koay, K. Dautenhahn, and R. teBoekhorst, Human approach distances to a mechanicallooking robot with different robot voice styles, in The 17th IEEE International Symposiumon Robot and Human Interactive Communication (2008) 707-712.Google Scholar

  • [21] A. P. Saygin, T. Chaminade, H. Ishiguro, J. Driver, and C. Frith, The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions, Soc- Cogn Affect Neurosci, 7, 4 (2012) 413-422Google Scholar

  • [22] F. Eyssel, D. Kuchenbrandt, S. Bobinger, L. de Ruiter, and F. Hegel, ‘If You Sound Like Me, You Must Be More Human’: On the Interplay of Robot and User Features on Human-robot Acceptance and Anthropomorphism, in Proceedings of the Seventh Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, New York, NY, USA (2012) 125-126Google Scholar

  • [23] A. Niculescu, B.van Dijk, A. Nijholt, S.L. See, The influence of voice pitch on the evaluation of a social robot receptionist. International Conference on User Science and Engineering (i- USEr). IEEE (2011) 18-23Google Scholar

  • [24] M. Scheutz and P. Schermerhorn, Affective Goal and Task Selection for Social Robots, in Handbook of Research on Synthetic Emotions and Sociable Robotics: New Applications in Affective Computing and Artificial Intelligence, Jordi Vallverdú and D. Casacuberta (Ed.) IGI Global, 2009Google Scholar

  • [25] Northwest Territories Department of Municipal and Community Affairs, Job Description Receptionist, 2005.Google Scholar

  • [26] G. Trovato, M. Zecca, S. Sessa, L. Jamone, J. Ham, K. Hashimoto, and A. Takanishi, Cross-cultural study on human-robot greeting interaction: acceptance and discomfort by Egyptians and Japanese, Paladyn. International Journal of Behavioral Robotics, 4, 2 (2013) 83-93Google Scholar

  • [27] P. Holthaus and K. Pitsch, How Can I Help? - Spatial Attention Strategies for a Receptionist Robot., I. J. Social Robotics, 3 (2011) 383-393Google Scholar

  • [28] M. Salem, M. Ziadee, and M. Sakr, Marhaba, How May I Help You?: Effects of Politeness and Culture on Robot Acceptance and Anthropomorphization, in Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-robot Interaction, New York, NY, USA, (2014) 74-81Google Scholar

  • [29] B. T. T. Chee, A. H. Y. Wong, D. K. Limbu, A. H. J. Tay, Y. K. Tan, and T. Park, UnderstandingCommunication Patterns for Designing Robot Receptionist, in Social Robotics, S. S. Ge, H. Li, J.-J. Cabibihan, and Y. K. Tan, Eds. Springer Berlin Heidelberg (2010) 345-354.Google Scholar

  • [30] D. Ribeiro, The Brazilian People: The Formation and Meaning of Brazil. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000.Google Scholar

  • [31] M.Makatchev, R. Simmons, M. Sakr, and M. Ziadee, Expressing Ethnicity through Behaviors of a Robot Character, in Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE international conference on Humanrobot interaction (2013) 357-364. Google Scholar

  • [32] J. M. DeMartino, L. PiniMagalhăes, and F. Violaro, Facial animation based on context-dependent visemes, Computers & Graphics, 30, 6 (2006) 971-980CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33] Ministry of Labor; RAIS - Annual Report of Social Information (in Portuguese)Google Scholar

  • [34] L. Yin, T. Bickmore, D. Byron, and D. Cortes, Cultural and linguistic adaptation of relational agents for health counseling, in Workshop on Interactive Systems in Healthcare, 2010.Google Scholar

  • [35] C. Nass, K. .Isbister, and E.-J. Lee, Embodied Conversational Agents, Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press (2000) 374-402.Google Scholar

  • [36] N. Endo and A. Takanishi, Development of Whole-Body Emotional Expression Humanoid Robot for ADL-Assistive RT Services, Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, 23, 6 (2011) 969-977CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37] F. Eyssel and F. Hegel, (S)he’s Got the Look: Gender Stereotyping of Robots1, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 9 (2012) 2213-2230CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [38] G. Metta, P. Fitzpatrick, and L. Natale, YARP: Yet Another Robot Platform, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 2006CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39] F. Eyssel and D. Kuchenbrandt, Social categorization of social robots: Anthropomorphism as a function of robot group membership, British Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 4 (2012) 724-731Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [40] D. Harman, Illiteracy: An Overview, Harvard Educ Rev,May 1970CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [41] C. Bartneck, D. Kulić, E. Croft, and S. Zoghbi, Measurement Instruments for the Anthropomorphism, Animacy, Likeability, Perceived Intelligence, and Perceived Safety of Robots, Int J of Soc Robotics, 1, 1 (2009) 71-81Google Scholar

  • [42] S. Freud, Das Unheimliche (The Uncanny). Europäischer Literaturverlag, 2013Google Scholar

  • [43] W. H. Kruskal and W. A. Wallis, Use of Ranks in One-Criterion Variance Analysis, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47, 260 (1952) 583-621, 1952.Google Scholar

  • [44] H. B. Mann and D. R. Whitney, On a Test of Whether one of Two Random Variables is Stochastically Larger than the Other, Ann. Math. Statist., 18, 1 (1947) 50-60CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [45] E. Broadbent, V. Kumar, X. Li, J. Sollers 3rd, R. Q. Stafford, B. A. MacDonald, and D. M. Wegner, Robots with Display Screens: A Robot with a More Humanlike Face Display Is Perceived To Have More Mind and a Better Personality, PLoS ONE, 8, 8 (2013) p. e72589Google Scholar

  • [46] P. Saulnier, E. Sharlin, and S. Greenberg, Exploring interruption in HRI usingWizard of Oz, in the 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (2010) 125-126Google Scholar

  • [47] L. A. Carlson, C. Hölscher, T. F. Shipley, and R. C. Dalton, Getting Lost in Buildings, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 5 (2010) 284-289CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-08-25

Accepted: 2017-03-14

Published Online: 2017-05-11

Published in Print: 2017-04-25


Citation Information: Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1–17, ISSN (Online) 2081-4836, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjbr-2017-0001.

Export Citation

© 2017 Gabriele Trovato et al. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Helio Azevedo, José Pedro R. Belo, and Roseli A. F. Romero
Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, 2019
[2]
Gabriele Trovato, Cesar Lucho, and Renato Paredes
Robotics, 2018, Volume 7, Number 3, Page 50

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in