Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics

Editor-in-Chief: Schöner, Gregor

Covered by SCOPUS

CiteScore 2018: 2.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.336
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.707

ICV 2018: 120.52

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

The soldier’s tolerance for autonomous systems

Jai Galliott
  • Research Group Leader – Values in Defence & Security Technology, School of Engineering & Information Technology, The University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-07-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjbr-2018-0008


Autonomous robots are here and military leaders have typically sought to understand the human-machine relationship as a matter of trust - a human-machine engineering problem with a largely technical solution. This paper argues that engineering is merely one part of the challenge and that trust in robotics and automation ought to be understood in a much broader socio-psychological context, defined by a power process, the capacity of soldiers to endure subjection to technology and the extent to which automation impinges upon one’s autonomy or otherwise impacts the soldier’s wellbeing.

Keywords: robots; lethal autonomous weapons systems; autonomous systems; trust; autonomy; strategy formation


  • [1] J. Hsu, Should humans trust robots, Discover Magazine, 2016, http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/lovesick-cyborg/2016/02/29/2233/Google Scholar

  • [2] M. Barnes, F. Jentsch, Human-Robot Interactions in Future Military Operations, CRC Press, 2016CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] J. Carpenter, Culture and Human-Robot Interaction in Militarized Spaces: A War Story, Ashgate, 2015Google Scholar

  • [4] M. Desai, K. Stubbs, A. Steinfeld, Creating trustworthy robots: lessons and inspirations from automated systems. Proceedings of the AISB Convention: New Frontiers in Human-Robot Interaction, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2009, 49-56Google Scholar

  • [5] T. Rogan, Robot soldiers can’t replace human soldiers, The Washington Examiner, 2018, https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/robot-soldiers-cant-replacehuman-soldiersGoogle Scholar

  • [6] T. Kaczynski, Technological Slavery, Feral House, 2011Google Scholar

  • [7] J. Galliott, The Unabomber on Robots: The Need for a Philosophy of Technology Geared Toward Human Ends, In: P. Lin, K. Abney, R. Jenkins, Robot Ethics 2.0: From Autonomous Cars to Artificial Intelligence, Oxford University Press, 2017Google Scholar

  • [8] V. Morkeviciucs, Tin men: ethics, cybernetics and the importance of soul, Journal of Military Ethics, 2014, 13, 3-19Google Scholar

  • [9] S. French, S. Sisk, C. Bass, Drones, honor and fragmented sovereignty: the impact of new and emerging technologies of the warrior’s code, In: D. Brunstetter, J. Holeindre (Eds.), The Ethics of War Revisited: Moral Challenges in an Era of Contested and Fragmented Sovereignty, Georgetown University Press, 2018Google Scholar

  • [10] J. Galliott, Military Robots: Mapping the Moral Landscape, Ashgate, 2015Google Scholar

  • [11] J. Galliott, The limits of robotic solutions to human challenges in the land domain, Defence Studies, 2017, 17, 327-345Google Scholar

  • [12] J. Galliott, Defending Australia in the digital age: toward full spectrum defence, Defence Studies, 2016, 16, 157-175Google Scholar

  • [13] P. Tran, B. Opall-Rome, French UAV to carry Israeli missile, 2005, http://www.rafael.co.il/marketing/SIP_STORAGE/FILES/0/600.pdfGoogle Scholar

  • [14] M. Benjamin, Drone Warfare: Killing by Remote Control, Verso, 2013Google Scholar

  • [15] H. Slim, Killing Civilians: Method, Madness and Morality in War, Oxford University Press, 2007Google Scholar

  • [16] R. Austin, Unmanned Aircraft Systems: UAV Design, Development and Deployment, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010Google Scholar

  • [17] R. Arkin, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots, CRC Press, 2009Google Scholar

  • [18] N. Sharkey, Saying ‘no!’ to lethal autonomous targeting, Journal of Military Ethics, 9, 2010, 369-383Google Scholar

  • [19] P. W. Singer, Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century, The Penguin Press, 2009Google Scholar

  • [20] D. Brunstetter, M. Braun, The implications of drones on the just war tradition, Ethics & International Affairs, 2011, 25, 337-358Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21] M. Beard, J. Galliott, S. Lynch, Soldier enhancement: ethical risks and opportunities, Australian Army Journal, 2016, 13, 5-20Google Scholar

  • [22] S. Barela, Legitimacy and Drones: Investigating the Legality, Morality and Efficacy of UCAVs, Routledge, 2016Google Scholar

  • [23] P. Lin, M. Mehlman, K. Abney, J. Galliott, Super Soldiers (Part 1): What is Military Human Enhancement? In: S. Thompson, Global Issues and Ethical Considerations in Human Enhancement Technologies, IGI, 2014Google Scholar

  • [24] P. Lin, et. al, Super Soldiers (Part 2): The ethical, legal and operational implications, In: S. Thompson, Global Issues and Ethical Considerations in Human Enhancement Technologies, IGI, 2014Google Scholar

  • [25] J. Galliott, Unmanned systems and war’s: prospects for lasting peace, Dynamique Internationales, 2013, 8, 1-24Google Scholar

  • [26] J. Galliott, W. Reed, Ethics and the Future of Spying: Technology, National Security and Intelligence Collection, Routledge, 2016Google Scholar

  • [27] C. Ketcham, J. Galliott, Outsourcing space, In: J. Galliott (Ed.), Commercial Space Exploration: Ethics, Policy and Governance, Ashgate, 2016Google Scholar

  • [28] J. Galliott, Artificial intelligence and space robotics: questions of responsibility, In: J. Galliott (Ed.), Commercial Space Exploration: Ethics, Policy and Governance, Ashgate, 2016Google Scholar

  • [29] J. Galliott, Cyber warfare, asymmetry, and responsibility: Considerations for defence theorem, In: M. Hadji-Janev & M. Bogdanoski, Handbook of Research on Civil Society and National Security in the Era of Cyber Warfare, IGI, 2016Google Scholar

  • [30] M. L. Cummings, Automation bias in intelligent time critical decision support systems, Proceedings of AIAA 1st Intelligent Systems Technical Conference, Chicago, USA, 2004, 557-562Google Scholar

  • [31] R. Campbell, G. Eaton, It’s all about you: implementing human-centered design, In: P.O’Connon, J. Cohn (Eds.), Human Performance Enhacement in High-Risk Environments: Insights, Developments, and Future Directions from Military Research, ABC CLIO, 2011Google Scholar

  • [32] W. Rogers, S. Rogers, Storm Center: The USS Vincennes and Iran Air Flight 655, Naval Institute Press, 1992Google Scholar

  • [33] N. Manders-Huits, Moral responsibility and IT for human enhancement. Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery Symposium, 2006, Dijon, France, 267-271Google Scholar

  • [34] C. Coker, Ethics and War in the 21st Century, Routledge, 2008Google Scholar

  • [35] D. Sukman, Lethal autonomous systems and the future of warfare, Canadian Military Journal, 2015, 16, 44-53Google Scholar

  • [36] United States Department of Defense, Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap FY2013-2038, Department of Defense, 2013Google Scholar

  • [37] M. Ignatieff, The Warrior’s Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience, Henry Holt & Company, 1998Google Scholar

  • [38] J. Kleinig, The blue wall of silence: an ethical analysis, International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 15, 1-23CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39] B. Jordan, Air Force Details Bonuses for Fighter Pilots, Military.com, 2015, http://www.military.com/daily-news/2015/04/07/air-force-details-bonuses-for-fighter-drone-pilots.htmlGoogle Scholar

  • [40] Committee on Armed Services, Stenographic Transcript Of Hearing to Receive Testimony on Army Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle and Air Force Remotely Piloted Aircraft Enterprises in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2017 and the Future Years Defense Program, US Senate, 2016Google Scholar

  • [41] E. Bumiller, Air force drone operators report high levels of stress, New York Times, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/19/world/asia/air-force-drone-operators-show-highlevels-ofstress.htmlGoogle Scholar

  • [42] S. Lindlaw, UAV Operators Suffer War Stress, Air Force Times, 2008, http://www.airforcetimes.com/article/20080807/NEWS/808070315/UAV-operators-suffer-warstressGoogle Scholar

  • [43] J. Shay, Moral injury, Intertexts, 2012, 16, 57-66Google Scholar

  • [44] B. Litz, N. Stein, E. Delaney, L. Lebowitz, W. Nash, C. Silva, S. Maguen, Moral injury and moral repair in war veterans: a preliminary model and intervention strategy, Clinical Psychology Review, 2009, 29, 695-706CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [45] M. Beard, Conceptual distinctions, In: T. Frame (Ed.), Injury: Unseen Wounds in an Age of Barbarism, UNSW Press, 2015Google Scholar

  • [46] P. Asaro, Modeling the moral user, IEEE Technology and Society, 2009, 289, 20-24Google Scholar

  • [47] P. Hancock, D. Billings, K. Schaefer, Can you trust your robot? Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, 2011, 19, 24-29Google Scholar

  • [48] P. Hancock, A. Pepe, L. Murphy, Hedonomics: the power of positive and pleasurable ergonomics, Ergonomics in Design, 2005, 13, 8-14Google Scholar

  • [49] W. Berry, Why I am not going to buy a computer, In: C. Hanks (Ed.), Technology and Values: Essential Readings,Wiley-Blackwell, 2010Google Scholar

  • [50] S. Turkle, From powerful ideas to PowerPoint, Convergence, 2003, 9, 19-25Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2018-02-12

Accepted: 2018-05-15

Published Online: 2018-07-11

Citation Information: Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 124–136, ISSN (Online) 2081-4836, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjbr-2018-0008.

Export Citation

© 2018 Jai Galliott. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in