Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Polish Journal of Chemical Technology

The Journal of West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.725
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.774

CiteScore 2016: 0.76

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.262
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.462

Open Access
Online
ISSN
1899-4741
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 15, Issue 1 (Mar 2013)

Issues

Optimization Of Protocol For Biodiesel Production Of Linseed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) Oil

Faizan Ullah / Asghari Bano / Saqib Ali
Published Online: 2013-03-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pjct-2013-0013

Attempts were made to optimize variables affecting the yield of linseed oil biodiesel in a base catalyzed transesterification reaction. The variables studied were reaction temperature (40-70oC), catalyst (NaOH) concentration (0.1-1.5%) and reaction time (30-180 min). The conversion of linseed oil into methyl esters was confirmed through analytical methods like 1H NMR, gas chromatography (GC) and refractometer. The maximum biodiesel yield (97±1.045% w/w) was obtained at 0.5% catalyst concentration, 65oC temperature, 180 min reaction time and 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil. 1H NMR confirmed the practically obtained % conversion of triglycerides into methyl esters which was further evidenced by refractometer analyses. The refractive index of biodiesel samples was lower than pure linseed oil. GC analysis confirmed the presence of linolenic acid (C18:3) as the dominant fatty acid (68 wt. %) followed by oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and stearic acid (C18:0) respectively. The physical properties of linseed oil biodiesel like specific gravity (0.90 g/cm3) and flash point (177oC) were higher than American Society for Testing and Materials standards (ASTM 6751) for biodiesel. However, kinematic viscosity (3.752 mm2/s) was in the range of ASTM standards.

Keywords : linseed; biodiesel; protocol; optimization

  • 1. Peterson, C.L., Reece, D.L., Cruz, R. & Thompson, J. (1992). In: Proceedings of an alternative energy conference of ASAE. 99-110.Google Scholar

  • 2. Anh, N. & Phan, T.M.P. (2008). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils. Fuel. 87, 3490-3496. DOI: 10.1016/j. fuel.2008.07.008.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3. AOAC, Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA (1990).Google Scholar

  • 4. Pearson, D. (1976). The Chemical Analysis of Food. Churchill, Livingstone, pp. 488-496.Google Scholar

  • 5. Akubugwo, I.E. & Ugbogu, A.E. (2007). Physiochemical studies on oils from five selected Nigerian plant seeds. Pak. J. Nut. 6, 75-78.Google Scholar

  • 6. Rashid U. & Anwar, F. (2008). Production of Biodiesel through Base-Catalyzed Transesterification of Safflower Oil Using an Optimized Protocol. Energy Fuel. 22, 1306-1312. DOI: 10.1021/ef700548s.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7. Camas, N., Cirak, C. & Esendal, E. (2007). Seed yield, oil content and fatty acids composition of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) grown in northern Turkey conditions. UniOndokuz Mayıs J. Fac. Agric. 22, 98-104.Google Scholar

  • 8. American Standards for Testing of Materials. (2003). American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar

  • 9. Nosheen, A., Bano A. & Ullah, F. (2012). Optimization of biodiesel production from Yellow sarson (Brassica campestris L.) oil. Energy Sourc. Part A. 35, 278-281. DOI:10.1080/1556 7036.2010.511431.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10. Ahmad, M., Khan, M.A., Zafar, M. & Sultana, S. (2010). Environment friendly renewable energy from Sesame biodiesel. Energy Sourc. Part A, 32 (2), 189-196. DOI: 10.1080/15567030802467480.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 11. Eevera, T., Rajendran, K. & Saradha, S. (2009). Biodiesel production process optimization and characterization to assess the suitability of the product for varied environmental conditions. Renew. Energy. 34, 762-765. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2008.04.006.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12. Ma, F., Clements, L.D. & Hanna, M.A. (1998). The effects of catalyst, free fatty acids, and water on transesterification of beef tallow. Transact. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. 41, 1261-1264. American Society of Agricultural Engineers 0001-2351/98/4105-1261.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13. Leung D.Y.C. & Guo, Y. (2006). Transesterification of neat and used frying oil: optimization for biodiesel production. Fuel Process. Technol. 87, 883-890. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2006.06.003.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14. Tariq, M., Ali, S., Ahmad, F., Ahmad, M., Zafar, M., Khalid, N. & Khan, M.A. (2011). Identification, FT-IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and GC/MS studies of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel from rocket seed oil. Fuel Process.Technol. 91, 336-341. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.09.025.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 15. Sales, A. (2011). Production of biodiesel from sunflower oil and ethanol by base catalyzed Transesterification. Department of Chemical Engineering Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar

  • 16. MacLeod. C. (2008). Evaluation of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Production. School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Material, Newcastle University.Google Scholar

  • 17. Domínguez, L.Á.A. (1996). Biofuels: use of vegetable oils as renewable energy. Madrid: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. pp. 203, ISBN 84-491-0181-6.Google Scholar

  • 18. Falate, R., Nike, K., da Costa Neto, P.R., Cação Jr, E., Muller, M., Kalinowski, H.J. & Fabris, J.L. (2007). Alternative technique for biodiesel quality control using an optical fiber long-period grating sensor. Quim. Nova. 30, 1677. DOI: 10.1590/ S0100-40422007000700034.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19. Ali, Y., Hanna, M.A. & Cuppett, S.L. (1995). Fuel properties of tallow and soybean oil esters. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72, 1557. DOI: 10.1007/BF02577854.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20. Pinzi, S., Leiva, D., Arzamendi, G., Gandia, L.M. & Dorado, M.P. (2011). Multiple response optimization of vegetable oils fatty acid composition to improve biodiesel physical properties. Biores. Technol. 102, 7280-7288. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.05.005.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21. Sanford, S.D., White, J.M., Shah, P.S., Wee, C., Valverde, M.A. & Meier G.R. (2009). Feedstock and biodiesel characteristics report; Renewable Energy Group, Inc; www.regfuel.comGoogle Scholar

  • 22. Bajpai, D. & Tyagi, V.K. (2006). Biodiesel: Source, Production, Composition, Properties and Its Benefits. J. Oleo Sci. 55 (10), 487-502. DOI: 10.5650/jos.55.487.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 23. Najeeb, U., Mirza, M.Y., Jilani, G., Mubashir, A.K. & Zhou, W.J. (2012). Sesame. In S.K. Gupta (Ed.), TechnologicalInnovations in Major World Oil Crops, Vol 1: Breeding, (pp. 131-145). Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA.Google Scholar

  • 24. Ullah, F. & Bano, A. (2011). Effect of plant growth regulators on oil yield and biodiesel production of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 23, 27-31. DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202011000100005.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-03-27

Published in Print: 2013-03-01


Citation Information: Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, ISSN (Online) 1899-4741, ISSN (Print) 1509-8117, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pjct-2013-0013.

Export Citation

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Vimal Chandra Pandey, Omesh Bajpai, and Nandita Singh
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, Volume 54, Page 58
[2]
Hassen Mohamed Sbihi, Imededdine Arbi Nehdi, Lahssen El Blidi, Umer Rashid, and Saud Ibrahim Al-Resayes
Industrial Crops and Products, 2015, Volume 76, Page 1049
[3]
Samir Abd-elmonem A Ismail and Rehab Farouk M Ali
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 2015, Volume 16, Number 3, Page 034602

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in