Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences

The Journal of Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.276

CiteScore 2016: 1.56

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.397
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.951

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Effect of Wild Strains Used as Starter Cultures on Free Fatty Acid Profile of Urfa Cheese

H. Avni Kirmaci
Published Online: 2016-09-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjfns-2015-0034


In the present study, the influences of wild-type lactic acid bacteria including Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1B4, Lactococcus garvieae IMAU 50157, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 19434, Enterococcus durans IMAU 60200 and Enterococcus faecalis KLDSO.034 on the composition and free fatty acid contents of Urfa cheeses were evaluated throughout the ripening period. Three different combinations of the strains were employed in the manufacture of cheeses from pasteurised milk. These are: cheese A (strains 1B4+ATCC 19434+IMAU 50157), cheese B (strains 1B4+IMAU 60200+ATCC 1934) and cheese C (strains ATCC 19434+1B4+IMAU 50157+IMAU 60200+KLDSO.0341). The control cheese (cheese D) was produced from raw ewe’s milk without starter culture. The basic composition of ripened cheese samples was not significantly affected by wild type strains. C cheese had a higher level of lipolysis than the other cheeses at all stages of ripening (p<0.05). Sensory evaluation of the cheese samples revealed that control cheese had significantly higher aroma and flavour scores than the other cheeses.

Keywords: Urfa cheese; wild type strains; free fatty acids; lipolysis; sensory analysis


  • 1.

    Anonymous, White Cheese Standard. Turkish Standards Institution TS 591, TSE, 2006, Ankara.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Atasoy A.F., Yetişmeyen A., Türkoğlu H., Özer B., Effects of heat treatment and starter culture on the properties of traditional Urfa cheeses (a white-brined Turkish cheese) produced from bovine milk. Food Contr., 2008, 19, 278–285.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Atasoy F.A., Türkoglu H., Changes of composition and free fatty acid contents of Urfa cheeses (a white-brined Turkish cheese) during ripening: Effects of heat treatments and starter cultures. Food Chem., 2008, 110, 598–604.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Atasoy F.A., Türkoglu H., Lipolysis in Urfa cheese produced from raw and pasteurized goats’ and cows’ milk with mesophilic or thermophilic cultures during ripening. Food Chem., 2009, 115, 71–78.Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Attaie R., Richter R., Formation of volatile free fatty acids during ripening of Cheddar-like goat cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 1996, 79, 717–724.Google Scholar

  • 6.

    Avila M., Calzada J., Gardes S., Nunez M., Lipolysis of semi-hard cheese made with a lacticin 481-producing Lactococcus lactis strain and a Lactobacillus helveticus strain. Lait, 2007, 87 575–585.Google Scholar

  • 7.

    Bodyfelt F.W., Tobias J., Trout G.M., The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy Products, 1988, New York: Avi Publishing, p. 598.Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Bohdziewicz K., Quality of whey fat obtained during the production of some ripening cheeses. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2006, 15(56), 29–33.Google Scholar

  • 9.

    Buffa M., Guamis B., Pavia M., Trujillo A.T., Lipolysis in cheese made from raw, pasteurized or high-pressure-treated goats’ milk. Int. Dairy J., 2001, 11, 175–179.Google Scholar

  • 10.

    Casalta E., Zennaro R., Effect of specific starters on microbiological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of Venaco, a Corsican soft cheese. Sci. Alim., 1997, 17, 79–94.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Centeno J.A., Menendez S., Hermida M.A., Rodriguez-Otero J.L., Effects of the addition of Enterococcus faecalis in Cebreiro cheese manufacture. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 1999, 48, 97–111.Google Scholar

  • 12.

    Collins Y.F., McSweeney P.L.H., Wilkinson M.G., Lipolysis and free fatty acid catabolism in cheese: A review of current knowledge. Int. Dairy J., 2003, 13, 841–866.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Delgado F.J., Gonzalez-Crespo J., Ladero L., Cava R., Ramírez R., Free fatty acids and oxidative changes of a Spanish soft cheese (PDO ‘Torta del Casar’) during ripening. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2009, 44, 1721–1728.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Delgado F.J., Gonzalez-Crespo J., Cava R., Ramírez R., Free fatty acids and oxidative changes of a raw goat milk cheese through maturation. J. Food Sci., 2011, 76, C669–C673.Google Scholar

  • 15.

    Freitas A.C., Malcata F.X., Lipolysis in Picante cheese: Influence of milk type and ripening time on free fatty acid profile. Le Lait, 1998, 78, 251–258.Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Garcia-Lopez S., Echeverria E., Tsui I., Balch B., Changes in the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in processed cheese during processing. Food Res. Int., 1994, 27, 61–64.Google Scholar

  • 17.

    Georgala A., Moschopoulou E., Aktypis A., Massouras T., Zoidou E., Kandarakis I., Anifantakis E., Evolution of lipolysis during the ripening of traditional Feta cheese. Food Chem., 2005, 93, 73–80.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Grappin R., Beuvier E., Possible implications of milk pasteurization on the manufacture and sensory quality of ripened cheese. Int. Dairy J., 1997, 7, 751–761.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Hassan F.A.M., Mona A.M., Abd El G., Enab A.K., Flavour compounds in cheese. Res. Prec. Inst. and Mach., 2013, 2(2), 15–29.Google Scholar

  • 20.

    Hayaloglu A.A., Karabulut I., Characterization and comparison of free fatty acid profiles of eleven varieties of Turkish cheeses. Int. J. Food Prop., 2013, 16, 1407–1416.Google Scholar

  • 21.

    ISO, International Organization for Standards, Cheese and processed cheese, Determination of the total solids content (Reference method) ISO 5534:2004 (IDF 4:2004)..

  • 22.

    IDF, International Dairy Federation, Determination of Salt Content, IDF Standard 12 B 1988, Brussels.

  • 23.

    Katsiari M.C., Voutsinas L.P., Alichanidis E., Roussis I.G., Lipolysis in reduced sodium Feta cheese made by partial substitution of NaCl by KCl. Int. Dairy J., 2000, 10, 369–373.Google Scholar

  • 24.

    Kirmaci H.A., Isolation, molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Urfa cheese and possible use as a starter culture. 2010, Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Applied and Natural Sciences of Harran University.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Litopolou-Tzanetaki E., Tzanetakis, N., Vafopolou-Mastrojiannaki A., Effect of type of lactic starter on microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of Feta cheese. Food Microbiol., 1993, 10, 31–34.Google Scholar

  • 26.

    Lopez C., Maillard M.B., Briard B.V., Camier B., Hannon J.A., Lipolysis during ripening of Emmental cheese considering organization of fat and preferential localization of bacteria. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 5855–5867.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Luo J., Pan T., Guo H.Y., Ren F.Z., Effect of calcium in brine on salt diffusion and water distribution of Mozzarella cheese during brining. J. Dairy Sci., 2013, 96, 824–831.Google Scholar

  • 28.

    Madadlou A., Khosrowshahi A., Mousavi M.E., Farmani J., Zargaran M., The influence of brine concentration on the chemical composition and texture of Iranian white cheese. J. Food Eng., 2007, 81, 330–335.Google Scholar

  • 29.

    Mallatou H., Pappa E., Massouras T., Changes in free fatty acids during ripening of Teleme cheese made with ewes’, goats’, cows’ or a mixture of ewes’ and goats’ milk. Int. Dairy J., 2003, 13, 211–219.Google Scholar

  • 30.

    McSweeney P.L.H., Biochemistry of cheese ripening. Int. J. Dairy Technol., 2004, 57,127–144.Google Scholar

  • 31.

    Özer B., Atasoy F., Akin S., Some properties of Urfa cheese (a traditional white-brined Turkish cheese) produced from bovine and ovine milks. Int. J. Dairy Technol., 2002, 55, 94–99.Google Scholar

  • 32.

    Özer B.H., Uraz G., Beyzi Y.E., Atasoy A.F., The effects of brine concentration and scalding on survival of some pathogens in Urfa cheese (A traditional white-brined Turkish cheese). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2004, 39, 727–735.Google Scholar

  • 33.

    Papademas P., Halloumi cheese. 2006, in: Brined cheeses (ed. A.Y. Tamime). Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 117–138.Google Scholar

  • 34.

    Parente E., Villani F., Coppola R., Coppola S., A multiple strain starter for water buffalo Mozzarella cheese manufacture. Lait, 1989, 69, 271–279.Google Scholar

  • 35.

    Pavia M., Trujillo A.J., Sendra E., Guamis B., Ferragut V., Free fatty acid content of Manchego-type cheese salted by brine vacuum impregnation. Int. Dairy J., 2000,10, 563–568.Google Scholar

  • 36.

    Perotti M.C., Bernal S.M., Meinardi C.A., Zalazar C.A., Free fatty acid profiles of Reggianito Argentino cheese produced from different starters. Int. Dairy J., 2005, 15, 1150–1155.Google Scholar

  • 37.

    Prieto B., Franco I., Fresno J.M., Bernardo A., Carballo J., Picón Bejes-Tresviso blue cheese: an overall biochemical survey throughout the ripening process. Int. Dairy J., 2000, 10, 159–167.Google Scholar

  • 38.

    Randazzo C.L., Pitino I., De Luca S., Scifo G.O., Caggia C., Effect of wild strains used as starter cultures and adjunct cultures on the volatile compounds of the Pecorino Siciliano cheese. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2008, 122, 269–278.Google Scholar

  • 39.

    Sukhija P.S., Palmquist D.L., Rapid method for determination of total fatty acid content and composition of feed stuffs and feces. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1988, 36, 1202–1206.Google Scholar

  • 40.

    Talpur F.N., Muhammad I.B., Nusrat N.M., Fatty acid composition with emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and cholesterol content of Pakistani dairy products. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2008, 58, 313–320.Google Scholar

  • 41.

    Upreti P., Metzger L.E., Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: pH changes during ripening. J. Dairy Sci., 2007, 90, 1–12.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-11-03

Revised: 2015-03-09

Accepted: 2015-04-16

Published Online: 2016-09-18

Published in Print: 2016-12-01

Citation Information: Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 303–310, ISSN (Online) 2083-6007, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjfns-2015-0034.

Export Citation

© 2016 H. Avni Kirmaci, published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in