Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences

The Journal of Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.276

CiteScore 2016: 1.56

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.397
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.951

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Application of Response Surface Methodology to Study the Combined Effect of Temperature, Time and pH on Antioxidant Activity of Cherry (Prunus avium) Honey

Gulzar Ahmad Nayik
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148106 (Punjab) India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Vikas Nanda
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148106 (Punjab) India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-09-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjfns-2015-0055


Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to analyze the effect of independent variables viz. temperature, time and pH on antioxidant properties of cherry honey. Seventeen runs including five replicates were used to study the combined effect of temperature (60–80°C), time (10–15 min) and pH (3 to 6) on the antioxidant properties [radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC)] of cherry honey. Statistical analysis revealed that process variables significantly affected all the responses. All the three parameters viz. DPPH-RSA, TPC and TFC increased with increase in time and temperature. The antioxidant properties of cherry honey were significantly decreased with increase in pH from 3 to 6. The thermal treatment of honey at 80°C was found to be more effective than at 70 and 60°C. The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity significantly increased with formation of browning pigments.

Keywords: cherry honey; antioxidant activity; total phenolic content; total flavonoid content


  • 1.

    Aljadi A. M., Kamaruddin M.Y., Evaluation of the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of two Malaysian floral honeys. Food Chem., 2004, 85, 513–518.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Arvouet-Grand A., Vennat B., Pourrat A., Legret P., Standardization d’une extrait de propolis et identification des principaux constituents. J. de Pharam. de Belg. 1994, 49, 462–468 (in French).Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Baltrusaityte V., Venskutonis P.R., Ceksteryte, V., Radical scavenging activity of different floral origin honey and beebread phenolic extracts. Food Chem., 2007, 101, 502–514.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Beretta G., Granata, P., Ferrero M., Orioli M., Facino R.M., Standardization of antioxidant properties of honey by a combination of spectrophotometric/fluorometric assays and chemometrics. Anal. Chim. Acta., 2005, 533, 180–191.Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Calligaris S., Manzocco L., Anese M., Nicoli M.C., Effect of heat-treatment on the antioxidant activity and pro-oxidant activity of milk. Int. Dairy J., 2004, 14, 421–427.Google Scholar

  • 6.

    Codex Alimentarius. Standard for honey. Codex Alimentarius Commission FAO/OMS Rome, 2001, 1–8.Google Scholar

  • 7.

    Escriche I., Visquert M., Carot J.M., Domenech E., Fito P., Effect of honey thermal conditions on hydroxymethylfurfural content prior to pasteurization. Food Sci. Technol. Int., 2008, 14, 29–35.Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Fauzi N.M., Farid M.M., Silva F.V.M., High-pressure processing of manuka honey: Improvement of antioxidant activity, preservation of colour and flow behavior. Food Bioproc. Technol., 2014, 7, 2299–2307.Google Scholar

  • 9.

    Gheldof N., Engeseth N.J., Antioxidant capacity of honeys from various floral sources based on the determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and inhibition of in vitro lipoprotein oxidation in human serum samples. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 3050–3055.Google Scholar

  • 10.

    Gheldof N., Wang X.H., Engeseth N.J., Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 5870–5877.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Giovanelli G., Lavelli V., Evaluation of heat and oxidative damage during storage of processed tomato products. I. Study of heat damage indices. J. Sci. Food Agric., 2002, 82, 1263–1267.Google Scholar

  • 12.

    Little T.M., Hills F.J., Agricultural Experimentation Design and Analysis, 1978, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Manzocco L., Calligaris S., Mastrocola D., Nicoli M.C., Lerici C.R., Review of non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant capacity in processed foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 2000, 11, 340–346.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Meda, A., Lamien, C.E., Romito, M., Millogo, J., Nacoulma, O.G. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem., 2005, 91, 571–577.Google Scholar

  • 15.

    Mendenhall, W., Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 1975, 4th ed. Duxbury Press, North Settuate, MA, p.273.Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Montgomery, D.C., Design and Analysis of Experiments, Response Surface Methodology, 2002, 5th ed., Wiley, New York, pp. 416–419.Google Scholar

  • 17.

    National Honey Board, Honey Varietals, 2010. Available at: [http://www.honey.com].

  • 18.

    Nayik G.A., Nanda V., Physico-chemical, Enzymatic, Mineral and colour characterization of three different varieties of honeys from Kashmir valley of India with a multivariate approach. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2015, 65(2), 101–108.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Nayik G.A., Nanda V., Characterization of the volatile profile of unifloral honey from Kashmir valley of India by using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Eur. Food Res. Tech., 2015, 240, 1091–1100.Google Scholar

  • 20.

    Nicoli M.C., Anese M., Parpinel M.T., Franceschi S., Lerici C.R., Loss and/or formation of antioxidants during food processing and storage. Cancer Lett., 1997, 114, 71–74.Google Scholar

  • 21.

    Tekindal M.A., Bayrak H., Ozkaya B., Genc Y., Box-Bssehnken experimental design in factorial experiments: the importance of bread for nutrition and health. Turkish J. Field Crops., 2012, 17, 115–123.Google Scholar

  • 22.

    Tosi E., Ciappini M., Re E., Lucero H., Honey thermal treatment effects on hydroxymethylfurfural content. Food Chem., 2002, 77, 71–74.Google Scholar

  • 23.

    Turkmen N., Sari F., Poyrazoglu E. S., Velioglu Y.S., Effects of prolonged heating on antioxidant activity and colour of honey. Food Chem., 2006, 95, 653–657.Google Scholar

  • 24.

    Van Boekel M.A.J.S., Kinetics aspects of the Maillard reaction: a critical review. Nahrung/Food., 2001, 45, 150–159.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Von Der Ohe W., Oddo L.P., Piana M.L., Morlot M., Martin P., Harmonized methods of melissopalynology. Apidologie., 2004, 35, 18–25Google Scholar

  • 26.

    Wagner K.H., Derkits S., Herr M., Schuh W., Elmadfa I., Antioxidative potential of melanoidins isolated from a roasted glucose–glycine model. Food Chem., 2002, 78, 375–382.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Wang X.H., Gheldof N.N., Engeseth J., Effect of processing and storage on antioxidant capacity of honey. J. Food Sci., 2004, 69, 96–101.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-05-30

Revised: 2015-10-23

Accepted: 2015-12-07

Published Online: 2016-09-18

Published in Print: 2016-12-01

Citation Information: Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 287–294, ISSN (Online) 2083-6007, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pjfns-2015-0055.

Export Citation

© 2016 Gulzar Ahmad Nayik et al., published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in