Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

The Journal of Committee of Veterinary Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.773

CiteScore 2016: 0.73

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.315
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.486

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2300-2557
See all formats and pricing
More options …

The application of circulating tumor cells detecting methods in veterinary oncology

M. Chmielewska
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13 Bldg. 105J, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ K. Łosiewicz
  • Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ P. Socha
  • Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 14, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ T. Męcik-Kronenberg
  • Department of Pathology in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, 3 Maja 13/15, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ K. Wąsowicz
  • Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-05-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pjvs-2013-0022

Abstract

Cancers are one of the most common diseases affecting dogs. Many of them develop spontaneously and their biology and histopathology shows many similarities to human cancers. What more, it is proved that there are much more analogies in molecular mechanisms of cancer development between these two species. Human oncology is seeking more and more efficient methods for an early disease detection which results directly in the extended life expectancy of patients affected. One of the most modern trends in the diagnosis of cancer is to detect circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the blood of patients. It is known that these cells are responsible for the formation of metastases in distant organs what results in the patient death. Moreover, it’s confirmed that CTC are already present in patients’ bloodstream in the early stages of tumor development. There is no doubt that mechanism of metastasis development in dogs is identical and thus the CTC are also present in their bloodstream. Despite the intense researches there is still no optimal method of isolating cancer cells from the blood where they occur extremely rarely. The purpose of this study is to analyze the implications of the detection methods of tumor cells in the blood in veterinary oncology.

Keywords: circulating tumor cells; cancer; metastasis; dog

  • Andrusiewicz M, Szczerba A, Wolun-Cholewa M, Warchol W, Nowak-Markwitz E, Gasiorowska E, Adamska K, Jankowska A (2011) CGB and GNRH1 expression analysis as a method of tumor cells metastatic spread detection in patients with gynecological malignances. J Transl Med 9: 130.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Ashworth TR (1869) A case of cancer in which cells similar to those in the tumours were seen in the blood after death. Aust Med J 14: 146-149.Google Scholar

  • Attard G, Crespo M, Lim AC, Pope L, Zivi A, De Bono JS (2011) Reporting the capture efficiency of a filter-based microdevice: a CTC is not a CTC unless it is CD45 negative- letter. Clin Cancer Res 17: 3048-3049.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ballestrero A, Garuti A, Bertolotto M, Rocco I, Boy D, Nencioni A, Ottonello L, Patrone F (2005) Effect of different cytokines on mammaglobin and maspin gene expression in normal leukocytes: possible relevance to the assays for the detection of micrometastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer 92: 1948-1952.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Beeton C, Chandy KG (2007) Enrichment of NK cells from human blood with the rosettesep kit from stemcell technologies. J Vis Exp 8: 326.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Berezovskaya O, Schimmer AD, Glinski AB, Pinilla C, Hoffman RM, Reed JC, Glinsky GV (2005) Increased expression of apoptosis inhibitor protein XIAP contributes to anoikis resistance of circulating human prostate cancer metastasis precursor cells. Cancer Res 65: 2378-2386.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bergman PJ (2007) Canine oral melanoma. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 22: 55-60.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Breen M (2009) Update on genomics in veterinary oncology. Top In Companion Anim Med 24: 113-121.Google Scholar

  • Chang YS, DI Tomaso E, Mcdonald DM, Jones R, Jain RK, Munn LL (2000) Mosaic blood vessels in tumors: frequency of cancer cells in contact with flowing blood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 14608-14613.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chu LL, Rutteman GR, Kong JM, Ghahremani M, Schmeing M, Misdorp W, Van Garderen E, Pelletier J (1998) Genomic organization of the canine p53 gene and its mutational status in canine mammary neoplasia. Breast Cancer Res Treat 50: 11-25.Google Scholar

  • Crisan D, Ruark DS, Decker DA, Drevon AM, Dicarlo RG (2000) Detection of circulating epithelial cells after surgery for benign breast disease. Mol Diagn 5: 33-38.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • DA Costa A, Lenze D, Hummel M, Kohn B, Gruber AD, Klopfleisch R (2012) Identification of six potential markers for the detection of circulating canine mammary tumour cells in the peripheral blood identified by microarray analysis. J Comp Pathol 146: 143-151.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • DA Cunha Santos G, Shepherd FA, Tsao MS (2011) EGFR mutations and lung cancer. Annu Rev Pathol 6: 49-69.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Devriese LA, Bosma AJ, Van De Heuvel MM, Heemsbergen W, Voest EE, Schellens JH (2011) Circulating tumor cell detection in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients by multi-marker QPCR analysis. Lung Cancer 75: 242-247PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Fehm T, Muller V, Aktas B, Janni W, Schneeweiss A, Stickeler E, Lattrich C, Lohberg Cr, Solomayer E, Rack B, Riethdorf S, Klein C, Schindlbeck C, Brocker K, Kasimir-Bauer S, Wallwiener D, Pantel K (2010) HER2 status of circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a prospective, multicenter trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 124: 403-412.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fidler IJ (1999) Critical determinants of cancer metastasis: rationale for therapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 43: S3-10.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fidler IJ (2003) The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis: the “seed and soil” hypothesis revisited. Nat Rev Cancer 3: 453-458.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fuse N (2011) Relation of HER2 status and prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 38: 1073-1078.Google Scholar

  • Gama A, Alves A, Schmitt F (2010) Expression and prognostic significance of CK19 in canine malignant mammary tumours. Vet J 184: 45-51.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gamlem H, Nordstoga K, Glattre E (2008) Canine neoplasia- introductory paper. Apmis Suppl 125: 5-18.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gertler R, Rosenberg R, Fuehrer K, Dahm M, Nekarda H, Siewert JR (2003) Detection of circulating tumor cells in blood using an optimized density gradient centrifugation. Recent Results Cancer Res 162: 149-155.Google Scholar

  • Giacona MB, Ruben GC, Iczkowski KA, Roos TB, Porter DM, Sorenson GD (1998) Cell-free DNA in human blood plasma: length measurements in patients with pancreatic cancer and healthy controls. Pancreas 17: 89-97.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Giangreco A, Lu L, Vickers C, Teixeira VH, Groot KR, Butler CR, Ilieva EV, George PJ, Nicholson AG, Sage EK, Watt FM, Janes SM (2011) β-catenin determines upper airway progenitor cell fate and preinvasive squamous lung cancer progression by modulating epithelial- mesenchymal transition. J Pathol 226: 575-587Google Scholar

  • Gilbertson SR, Kurzman ID, Zachrau RE, Hurvitz AI, Black MM (1983) Canine mammary epithelial neoplasms: biologic implications of morphologic characteristics assessed in 232 dogs. Vet Pathol 20: 127-142.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Glickman LT, Domanski LM, Maguire TG, Dubielzig RR, Churg A (1983) Mesothelioma in pet dogs associated with exposure of their owners to asbestos. Environ res 32: 305-313.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Glickman LT, Schofer FS, Mckee LJ, Reif JS, Goldschmidt MH (1989) Epidemiologic study of insecticide exposures, obesity, and risk of bladder cancer in household dogs. J Toxicol Environ Health 28: 407-414.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Glinsky VV, Glinsky GV, Glinskii OV, Huxley VH, Turk JR, Mossine VV, Deutscher SL, Pienta KJ, Quinn TP (2003) Intravascular metastatic cancer cell homotypic aggregation at the sites of primary attachment to the endothelium. Cancer Res 63: 3805-3811.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Goeminne JC, Guillaume T, Symann M (2000) Pitfalls in the detection of disseminated non-hematological tumor cells. Ann Oncol 11: 785-792.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Hayes HM, Tarone RE, Cantor KP (1995) On the association between canine malignant lymphoma and opportunity for exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Environ Res 70: 119-125.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • He W, Kularatne SA, Kalli KR, Prendergast FG, Amato RJ, Klee GG, Hartmann LC, Low PS (2008) Quantitation of circulating tumor cells in blood samples from ovarian and prostate cancer patients using tumor-specific fluorescent ligands. Int J Cancer 123: 1968-1973.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • He W, Wang H, Hartmann LC, Cheng JX, Low PS (2007) In vivo quantitation of rare circulating tumor cells by multiphoton intravital flow cytometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 11760-11765.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Henry CJ (2010) Biomarkers in veterinary cancer screening: applications, limitations and expectations. Vet J 185: 10-14.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Henry CJ, Brewer WG Jr, Whitley em, Tyler JW, Ogilvie GK, Norris A, Fox LE, Morrison WB, Hammer A, Vail DM, Berg J (2005) Canine digital tumors: a veterinary cooperative oncology group retrospective study ff 64 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 19: 720-724.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Http://Loudoun.Nvcc.Edu/Vetonline/Vet131/Erythrocytes.htmGoogle Scholar

  • Husemann Y, Geigl JB, Schubert F, Musiani P, Meyer M, Burghart E, Forni G, Eils R, Fehm T, Riethmuller G, Klein CA (2008) Systemic spread is an early step in breast cancer. Cancer Cell 13: 58-68.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Janjigian YY, Shah MA (2011) Molecularly targeted therapies in advanced gastric cancer. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 57: 75-88.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Jonasdottir TJ, Mellersh CS, Moe L, Heggebo R, Gamlem H, Ostrander EA, Lingaas F (2000) Genetic mapping of a naturally occurring hereditary renal cancer syndrome in dogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 4132-4137.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kim U, Qian J, Kenrick SA, Daugherty PS, Soh HT (2008) Multitarget Dielectrophoresis Activated Cell Sorter. Anal Chem 80: 8656-8661.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Knapp DW, Glickman NW, Denicola DB, Bonney PL, Lin TL, Glickman LT (2000) Naturally-occurring canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder a relevant model of human invasive bladder cancer. Urol Oncol 5: 47-59.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Krivacic RT, Ladanyi A, Curry DN, Hsieh HB, Kuhn P, Bergsrud DE, Kepros JF, Barbera T, Ho My, Chen LB, Lerner RA, Bruce RH (2004) A rare-cell detector for cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 10501-10504.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kruck S, Gakis G, Stenzl A (2011) Disseminated and circulating tumor cells for monitoring chemotherapy in urological tumors. Anticancer Res 31: 2053-2057. Kruck S, Gakis G, Stenzl A (2012) Circulating and disseminated tumor cells in the management of advanced prostate cancer. Adv Urol 2012: 135-281.Google Scholar

  • Latza U, Niedobitek G, Schwarting R, Nekarda H, Stein H (1990) Ber-Ep4: new monoclonal antibody which distinguishes epithelia from mesothelial. J Clin Pathol 43: 213-219.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Leary AF, Castro DG, Nicholson AG, Ashley S, Wotherspoon A, O’brien ME, Popat S (2011) Establishing an EGFR mutation screening service for non-small cell lung cancer - sample quality criteria and candidate histological predictors. Eur J Cancer 48: 61-67.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Leversha MA, Han J, Asgari Z, Danila DC, Lin O, Gonzalez- Espinoza R, Anand A, Lilja H, Heller G, Fleisher M, Scher HI (2009) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis of circulating tumor cells in metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 15: 2091-2097.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Lipman NS, Jackson LR, Trudel LJ, Weis-Garcia F (2005) Monoclonal versus polyclonal antibodies: distinguishing characteristics, applications, and information resources. Ilar J 46: 258-268.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Loisel S, Ohresser M, Pallardy M, Dayde D, Berthou C, Cartron G, Watier H (2007) Relevance, advantages and limitations of animal models used in the development of monoclonal antibodies for cancer treatment. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 62: 34-42.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Luzzi KJ, Macdonald IC, Schmidt EE, Kerkvliet N, Morris VL, Chambers AF, Groom AC (1998) Multistep nature of metastatic inefficiency: dormancy of solitary cells after successful extravasation and limited survival of early micrometastases. Am J Pathol 153: 865-873.Google Scholar

  • MacEwen EG (1990) Spontaneous tumors in dogs and cats: models for the study of cancer biology and treatment. Cancer Metastasis Rev 9: 125-136.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Maheswaran S, Sequist LV, Nagrath S, Ulkus L, Brannigan B, Collura CV, Inserra E, Diederichs S, Iafrate AJ, Bell DW, Digumarthy S, Muzikansky A, Irimia D, Settleman J, Tompkins RG, Lynch TJ, Toner M, Haber DA (2008) Detection of mutations in EGFR in circulating lung-cancer cells. N Engl J Med 359: 366-377.Google Scholar

  • Metge BJ, Frost AR, King JA, Dyess DL, Welch DR, Samant RS, Shevde LA (2008) Epigenetic silencing contributes to the loss of BRMS1 expression in breast cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis 25: 753-763.Google Scholar

  • Molloy TJ, Devriese LA, Helgason HH, Bosma AJ, Hauptmann M, Voest EE, Schellens JH, Van’t Veer LJ (2011) A multimarker QPCR-based platform for the detection of circulating tumour cells in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Br J Cancer 104: 1913-1919.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Mostert B, Sleijfer S, Foekens JA, Gratama JW (2009) Circulating tumor cells (CTCs): detection methods and their clinical relevance in breast cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 35: 463-474.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nagrath S, Sequist LV, Maheswaran S, Bell DW, Irimia D, Ulkus L, Smith MR, Kwak EL, Digumarthy S, Muzikansky A, Ryan P, Balis UJ, Tompkins RG, Haber DA, Toner M (2007) Isolation of rare circulating tumour cells in cancer patients by microchip technology. Nature 450: 1235-1239.Google Scholar

  • Obermayr E, Sanchez-Cabo F, Tea MK, Singer CF, Krainer M, Fischer MB, Sehouli J, Reinthaller A, Horvat R, Heinze G, Tong D, Zeillinger R (2010) Assessment of a six gene panel for the molecular detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood of female cancer patients. Bmc Cancer 10: 666.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Ochiai A (2011) Standardization of evaluation for target molecule in cancer therapy. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 38: 709-714.Google Scholar

  • Ostrander EA, Wayne RK (2005) The canine genome. Genome Res 15: 1706-1716.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pang LY, Argyle DJ (2009) Using naturally occurring tumours in dogs and cats to study telomerase and cancer stem cell biology. Biochim Biophys Acta 1792: 380-391.Google Scholar

  • Pantel K, Alix-Panabieres C, Riethdorf S (2009) Cancer micrometastases. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 6: 339-351.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Pantel K, Brakenhoff RH, Brandt B (2008) Detection, clinical relevance and specific biological properties of disseminating tumour cells. Nat Rev Cancer 8: 329-340.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Park Y, Kitahara T, Urita T, Yoshida Y, Kato R (2011) Expected clinical applications of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer. World J Clin Oncol 2: 303-310.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Parker HG, Kim LV, Sutter NB, Carlson S, Lorentzen TD, Malek TB, Johnson GS, Defrance HB, Ostrander EA, Kruglyak L (2004) Genetic structure of the purebred domestic dog. Science 304: 1160-1164.Google Scholar

  • Patterson DF (2000) Companion animal medicine in the age of medical genetics. J Vet Intern Med 14: 1-9.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pilati P, Mocellin S, Bertazza L, Galdi F, Briarava M, Mammano E, Tessari E, Zavagno G, Nitti D (2011) Prognostic value of putative circulating cancer stem cells in patients undergoing hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol 19: 402-408.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Reif JS, Bruns C, Lower KS (1998) Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pet dogs. Am J Epidemiol 147: 488-492.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Reinholz MM, Nibbe A, Jonart LM, Kitzmann K, Suman VJ, Ingle JN, Houghton R, Zehentner B, Roche PC, Lingle WL (2005) Evaluation of a panel of tumor markers for molecular detection of circulating cancer cells in women with suspected breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11: 3722-3732.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Ross JS, Slodkowska EA (2009) Circulating and disseminated tumor cells in the management of breast cancer. Am J Clin Pathol 132: 237-245.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Rowell JL, Mccarthy DO, Alvarez CE (2011) Dog models of naturally occurring cancer. Trends Mol Med 17: 380-388.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rupp AK, Rupp C, Keller S, Brase JC, Ehehalt R, Fogel M, Moldenhauer G, Marme F, Sultmann H, Altevogt P (2011) Loss of EPCAM expression in breast cancer derived serum exosomes: role of proteolytic cleavage. Gynecol Oncol 122: 437-446.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Saliba AE, Saias L, Psychari E, Minc N, Simon D, Bidard FC, Mathiot C, Pierga JY, Fraisier V, Salamero J, Saada V, Farace F, Vielh P, Malaquin L, Viovy JL (2010) Microfluidic sorting and multimodal typing of cancer cells in self-assembled magnetic arrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107: 14524-14529.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Saloustros E, Perraki M, Apostolaki S, Kallergi G, Xyrafas A, Kalbakis K, Agelaki S, Kalykaki A, Georgoulias V, Mavroudis D (2011) Cytokeratin-19 mRNA-positive circulating tumor cells during follow-up of patients with operable breast cancer: prognostic relevance for late relapse. Breast Cancer Res 10: 13.Google Scholar

  • Schuberth HJ, Kucinskiene G, Chu RM, Faldyna M (2007) Reactivity of cross-reacting monoclonal antibodies with canine leukocytes, platelets and erythrocytes. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 119: 47-55. Schwarzenbach H, Alix-Panabieres C, Muller I, Letang N, Vendrell JP, Rebillard X, Pantel K (2009) Cell-free tumor DNA in blood plasma as a marker for circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 15: 1032-1038.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sequist LV, Nagrath S, Toner M, Haber DA, Lynch TJ (2009) The CTC-chip: an exciting new tool to detect circulating tumor cells in lung cancer patients. J Thorac Oncol 4: 281-283.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Shearin AL, Ostrander EA (2010) Leading the way: canine models of genomics and disease. Dis Model Mech 3: 27-34.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Switonski M, Szczerbal I, Nowacka J (2004) The dog genome map and its use in mammalian comparative genomics. J Appl Genet 45: 195-214.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Tao M, Ma D, Li Y, Zhou C, Li Y, Zhang Y, Duan W, Xu X, Wang R, Wu L, Liu H (2011) Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat 129: 247-254.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Weihrauch MR, Skibowski E, Draube A, Geller A, Tesch H, Diehl V, Bohlen H (2002) Immunomagnetic enrichment and detection of isolated tumor cells in bone marrow of patients with epithelial malignancies. Clin Exp Metastasis 19: 617-621.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Weiner LM, Borghaei H (2006) Targeted therapies in solid tumors: monoclonal antibodies and small molecules. Hum Antibodies 15: 103-111.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Wu TL, Zhang D, Chia JH, Tsao KC, Sun CF, Wu JT (2002) Cell-free DNA: measurement in various carcinomas and establishment of normal reference range. Clin Chim Acta 321: 77-87.Google Scholar

  • Wu W, Hu G, Kang N, Jiang J, Yang X (2011) Expression of CK19 mRNA and EGFR mRNA in the peripheral blood and its relationship with lymphatic metastasis in laryngeal carcinoma model. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 25: 501-505.Google Scholar

  • Zabaglo L, Ormerod MG, Parton M, Ring A, Smith IE, Dowsett M (2003) Cell filtration-laser scanning cytometry for the characterisation of circulating breast cancer cells. Cytometry A 55: 102-108.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-05-21

Published in Print: 2013-03-01


Citation Information: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, ISSN (Print) 1505-1773, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/pjvs-2013-0022.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in