Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Polish Polar Research

The Journal of Committee on Polar Research of Polish Academy of Sciences

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.636
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2016: 1.20

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.556
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.645

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 33, Issue 3


Review of the putative Phorusrhacidae from the Cretaceous and Paleogene of Antarctica: new records of ratites and pelagornithid birds

Marcos M. Cenizo
  • Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, Uruguay 151, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2012-10-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10183-012-0014-3


: Remains referred to Phorusrhacidae from the Cretaceous and Paleogene of the Antarctic Peninsula, and mainly known through informal and succinct descriptions, are re− assigned here to other bird lineages recorded in the Antarctic continent. New records of ratites, pelagornithid birds, and penguins are added to the Upper Eocene avifauna of Sey− mour Island. Moreover, the original allocation for an alleged cursorial seriema−like bird from the Maastrichtian of Vega Island is refuted, and its affinities with foot−propelled div− ing birds are indicated. The indeterminate Pelagornithidae specimen represents the largest pseudo−toothed bird known so far. It is concluded that there is no empirical evidence for the presence of terror birds in Antarctica.

Keywords: Antarctica; fossil birds; Cretaceous; Eocene.

  • AGNOLIN F.L. 2004. La posición sistemática de algunas aves fósiles deseadenses (Oligoceno Medio) descriptas por Ameghino en 1899. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales 6: 239-244.Google Scholar

  • AGNOLIN F.L. 2009. Sistemática y filogenia de las aves fororracoideas (Gruiformes: Cariamae). Fundación de Historia Natural Félix de Azara, Buenos Aires, Argentina: 79 pp.Google Scholar

  • ALVARENGA H.M.F. and HÖFLING E. 2003. Systematic revision of the Phorusrhacidae (Aves: Ralliformes). Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 43: 55-91.Google Scholar

  • ALVARENGA H.M.F., CHIAPPE L. and BERTELLI S. 2011. Phorusrhacids: the Terror Birds. In: G. Dyke and G. Kaiser (eds) Living Dinosaurs: The Evolutionary History of Modern Birds. Wiley: 187-208.Google Scholar

  • AMEGHINO F. 1895. Sobre las aves fósiles de Patagonia. Boletín del Instituto Geográfico de Argentina 15: 501-602.Google Scholar

  • ANDREWS C. 1899. On the extinct birds of Patagonia. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 15: 55-86.Google Scholar

  • BASKIN J.A. 1995. The giant flightless bird Titanis walleri (Aves: Phorusrhacidae) from the Pleistocene coastal plain of south Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15: 842-844.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • BAUMEL J. andWITMER L.M. 1993. Osteologia. In: J. Baumel, A. King, J. Breazile, H. Evans and J. Vanden Berge (eds) Handbook of avian anatomy: Nomina Anatomica Avium. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Massachusetts: 45-132.Google Scholar

  • BERTELLI S., CHIAPPE L.M. and TAMBUSSI C.P. 2007. A new phorusrhacid (Aves, Cariamae) from the middle Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27: 409-419.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • BLANCO R.E. and JONES W.W. 2005. Terror bird on the run: a mechanical model to estimate its maximum running speed. Proceedings of the Royal Society 272: 1769-1773.Google Scholar

  • BOURDON E. 2005. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo−toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). Naturwissenschaften 92: 586-591.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • BOURDON E. 2006. L’avifaune du Paléogène des phosphates du Maroc et du Togo: diversité, systématique et apports à la connaissance de la diversification des oiseaux modernes (Neornithes). Ph.D. dissertation, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris: 330 pp.Google Scholar

  • BOURDON E. 2001. The Pseudo−toothed Birds (Aves, Odontopterygiformes) and their bearing on the early evolution of modern birds. In: G. Dyke and G. Kaiser (eds) Living Dinosaurs. The Evolutionary History of Modern Birds. London, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: pp. 209-234.Google Scholar

  • BOURDON E., AMAGHZAZ M. and BOUYA B. 2010. Pseudotoothed birds (Aves, Odontopterygiformes) from the early Tertiary of Morocco. American Museum Novitates 3704: 1-71.Google Scholar

  • BOURDON E., DE RICQLES and A. CUBO J. 2009. A new Transantarctic relationship: morphological evidence for a Rheidae-Dromaiidae-Casuariidae clade (Aves, Palaeognathae, Ratitae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 156: 641-663.Google Scholar

  • BOWERBANK J.S. 1854. On the remains of a gigantic bird (Lithornis emuinus) from the London Clay of Sheppey. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 14: 263-264.Google Scholar

  • BRODKORB P. 1963. A giant flightless bird from the Pleistocene of Florida. Auk 80: 111-115.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • CABRERA A. 1939. Sobre vertebrados fósiles del Plioceno de Adolfo Alsina. Revista del Museo La Plata 2: 3-35.Google Scholar

  • CASE J.A. 2006. The late Middle Eocene terrestrial vertebrate fauna from Seymour Island: the tails of the Eocene Patagonian size distribution. Special Publication of the Geological Society of London 258: 177-186.Google Scholar

  • CASE J., REGUERO M., MARTIN J. and CORDES−PERSON A. 2006. A cursorial bird from the Maastrichtian of Antarctica. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26 (3, Supplement): 48A.Google Scholar

  • CASE J.A., WOODBURNE M. and CHANEY D. 1987. A gigantic phororhacoid (?) bird from Antarctica. Journal of Paleontology 61: 1280-1284.Google Scholar

  • CHANDLER R.M. 1994. The wing of Titanis walleri (Aves: Phorusrhacidae) from the late Blancan of Florida. Bulletin of Florida Museum of Natural History 36: 175-180.Google Scholar

  • CHANDLER R.M. 1997. New discoveries of Titanis walleri (Aves: Phorusrhacidaae) and a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the Phorusrhacids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17 (3, Supplement): 36-37A.Google Scholar

  • CHATTERJEE S. 2002. The morphology and systematics of Polarornis, a Cretaceous loon (Aves: Gaviidae) from Antarctica. In: Z. Zhou and F. Zhang (eds) Proceedings of the 5th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution. Beijing, 1-4 June 2000, Science Press: 125-155.Google Scholar

  • CHATTERJEE S., MARTINIONI C., NOVAS F., MUSSEL F. and TEMPLIN R. 2006. A new fossil loon from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica and early radiation of foot−propelled diving birds. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26: 49A.Google Scholar

  • CHAVEZ M. 2007. Fossil birds of Chile and Antarctic Peninsula. Arquivos do Museu Nacional 65: 551-572.Google Scholar

  • CHAVEZ M., STUCCHI M. and URBINA M. 2007. El registro de Pelagornithidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) y la avifauna neógena del Pacífico sudeste. Bulletin del’Institut Français d’Études Andines 36: 175-197.Google Scholar

  • COVACEVICH V. and RICH P. 1982. New bird ichnites from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, West Antarctica. In: C. Craddock (ed.) Antarctic Geoscience. University of Wisconsin Press: 245-254.Google Scholar

  • CRACRAFT J. 1974. Phylogeny and evolution of the ratite birds. Ibis 116: 494-521.Google Scholar

  • CRACRAFT J. 1982. Phylogenetic relationships and monophyly of loons, grebes, and hesperornithiform birds, with comments on the early history of birds. Systematic Zoology 31: 35-56.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • CRACRAFT J. 1988. The major clades of birds. In: J. Benton (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds. Clarendon Press, Oxford: 339-361.Google Scholar

  • DEGRANGE F.J. and TAMBUSSI C.P. 2011. Re−examination of Psilopterus lemoinei (Aves, Phorusrhacidae), a late early Miocene little terror bird from Patagonia (Argentina). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31: 1080-1092.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • DEGRANGE F.J., TAMBUSSI C.P.,MORENO K.,WITMER L.M. andWROE S. 2010. Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct ‘‘Terror Bird’’ Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae). PLoS ONE 5(8): e11856.Google Scholar

  • DUTTON A.L., LOHMANN K.C. and ZINSMEISTER W.J. 2002. Stable isotope and minor element proxies for Eocene climate of Seymour Island, Antarctica. Paleoceanography 17: 1016-1029.Google Scholar

  • ERICSON P.G.P., ANDERSON C.L., BRITTON T., ELŻANOWSKI A., JOHANSSON U.S., KÄLLERSJÖ M.,OHLSON J.I., PARSONS T.J., ZUCCON D. andMAYR G. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2: 543-547.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • FEDUCCIA A. 1999. The Origin and Evolution of Birds, 2 Ed. Yale University Press, New Haven: 482 pp.Google Scholar

  • FÜRBRINGER M. 1888. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Systematik der Vögel, zugleich ein Beitrag zur Anatomie der Stütz− und Bewegungsorgane. Van Holkema, Amsterdam: 1751 pp.Google Scholar

  • GALTON P.M. andMARTIN L.D. 2002. Enaliornis, an Early Cretaceous hesperornithiform bird from England, with comments on other Hesperornithiformes. In: L.M. Chiappe and L.M. Witmer (eds) Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: 317-338.Google Scholar

  • GOEDERT J.L. 1989. Giant Late Eocene marine birds (Pelecaniformes: Pelagornithidae) from north−western Oregon. Journal of Paleontology 63: 939-944.Google Scholar

  • GOULD J. 1857. On a New Species of Cassowary. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 25: 268-271.Google Scholar

  • GOULD G. and QUITMYER I. 2005. Titanis walleri: bones of contention. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 45: 201-229.Google Scholar

  • HACKETT S.J., KIMBALL R.T., REDDY S., BOWIE R.C.K., BRAUN E.L., BRAUN M.J., CHOJNOWSKI J.L., Cox W.A., HAN K.L., HARSHMAN J., HUDDLESTON C.J., MARKS B.D., MIGLIA K.J., MOORE W.S., SHELDON F.H., STEADMAN D.W., WITT C.C. and YURI T. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763-1767.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • HARRISON C.J.O. andWALKER C.A. 1976. A review of the bony−toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes): with description of some new species. Tertiary Research Special Paper 2: 1-62.Google Scholar

  • HIERONYMUS T.L. andWITMER L.M. 2010. Homology and evolution of avian compound rhamphothecae. Auk 127: 590-604.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • HOPSON J.A. 1964. Pseudodontornis and other large marine birds from the Miocene of South Carolina. Postilla 83: 1-19.Google Scholar

  • HOWARD H. 1957. A gigantic “toothed” marine bird from the Miocene of California. Bulletin of the Department of Geology of the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History 1: 1-23.Google Scholar

  • HOWARD H. 1978. Late Miocene marine birds from Orange County, California. Contributions in Science 290: 1-25.Google Scholar

  • HOWARD H. andWHITE J.A. 1962. A second record of Osteodontornis, Miocene “toothed” bird. Los Angeles County Museum, Contributions in Science 52: 1-12.Google Scholar

  • JADWISZCZAK P. 2006. Eocene penguins of Seymour Island, Antarctica: Taxonomy. Polish Polar Research 27: 3-62.Google Scholar

  • JADWISZCZAK P. and MÖRS T. 2011. Aspects of diversity in early Antarctic penguins. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56: 269-277.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • JONES C.M. 2000. The first record of a fossil bird from East Antarctica. In: J.D. Stilwell and R.M. Feldmann (eds) Paleobiology and paleoenvironments of Eocene rocks, McMurdo Sound, East Antarctica. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. Antarctic Research Series 76: 359-364.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • KRAGLIEVICH L. 1931. Contribución al conocimiento de las aves fósiles de la época arauco−entrerriana. Physis 10: 304-315.Google Scholar

  • LARTET E. 1857. Note sur un humérus fossile d’oiseau, attribue à un très−grand palmipède de la section des Longipennes. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 44: 736-741.Google Scholar

  • LATHAM J. 1790. Index Ornithologicus. Leigh and Sotheby, London: 665 pp.Google Scholar

  • LINNAEUS C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, 10th edition, 2 volumes. L. Salvii, Stockholm: 824 pp.Google Scholar

  • LIVEZEY B.C. and ZUSI R.L. 2006. Higher−order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy: I - methods and characters. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 37: 1-544.Google Scholar

  • MARTIN L.D. and TATE J. Jr. 1976. The skeleton of Baptornis advenus (Aves: Hesperornithiformes). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 27: 35-66.Google Scholar

  • MAYR G. 2002. A new specimen of Salmila robusta (Aves: Gruiformes: Salmilidae n. fam.) from the Middle Eocene of Messel. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76: 305-316.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAYR G. 2003. The phylogenetic relationships of the shoebill, Balaeniceps rex. Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157-175.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAYR G. 2005. “Old World phorusrhacids” (Aves, Phorusrhacidae): a new look at Strigogyps (“Aenigmavis”) sapea (Peters 1987). PaleoBios 25: 11-16.Google Scholar

  • MAYR G. 2007. Synonymy and actual affinities of the putative Middle Eocene “New World vulture” Eocathartes Lambrecht, 1935 and “hornbill” Geiseloceros Lambrecht, 1935 (Aves, Ameghinornithidae). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 81: 457-462.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAYR G. 2008. A skull of the giant bony−toothed bird Dasornis (Aves: Pelagornithidae) from the lower Eocene of the Isle of Sheppey. Palaeontology 51: 1107-1116.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAYR G. 2009. Paleogene fossil birds. Springer, Heidelberg: 262 pp.Google Scholar

  • MAYR G. 2010. Metaves, Mirandornithes, Strisores, and other novelties - a critical review of the higher−level phylogeny of neornithine birds. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 49: 58-76.Google Scholar

  • MAYR G. 2011. Cenozoic mystery birds, on the phylogenetic affinities of bony−toothed birds (Pelagornithidae). Zoologica Scripta 40, 448-467.Google Scholar

  • MAYR G. and CLARKE J. 2003. The deep divergences of neornithine birds: a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters. Cladistics 19: 527-553.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAYR G. and RUBILAR−ROGERS D. 2010. Osteology of a new giant bony−toothed bird from the Miocene of Chile, with a revision of the taxonomy of Neogene Pelagornithidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30: 1313-1330.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAYR G. and SMITH T. 2010. Bony−toothed birds (Aves: Pelagornithidae) from the Middle Eocene of Belgium. Palaeontology 53: 365-376.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAYR G., ALVARENGA H. and CLARKE J. 2011. An Elaphrocnemus−like landbird and other avian remains from the late Paleocene of Brazil. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56: 679-684.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAYR G., HAZEVOET C.J., DANTAS P. and CACHAO M. 2008. A sternum of a very large bonytoothed bird (Pelagornithidae) from the Miocene of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28: 762-769.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MCFADDEN B., LABS−HOCHSTEIN J., HULBERT R.C.Jr. and BASKIN J.A. 2007. Revised age of the late Neogene terror bird (Titanis) in North America during the Great American Interchange. Geology 35: 123-126.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MERREM B. 1813. Systematis naturalis Avium. Abhandlungen der Köninglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin: 237-259.Google Scholar

  • MORENO F. and MERCERAT A. 1891. Catálogo de los pájaros fósiles de la República Argenitna conservados en el Museo de La Plata. Anales del Museo de La Plata 1: 1-71.Google Scholar

  • MOURER−CHAUVIRÉ C. 1981. Première indication de la présence de Phorusrhacidés, famille d’oiseaux géants d’Amérique du Sud, dans le Tertiaire Européen: Ameghinornis nov. gen. (Aves, Ralliformes) des Phosphorites du Quercy, France. Geóbios 14: 637-647.Google Scholar

  • MOURER−CHAUVIRÉ C. and GERAADS D. 2008. The Struthionidae and Pelagornithidae (Aves: Struthioniformes, Odontopterygiformes) from the late Pliocene of Ahl al Oughlam, Morocco. Oryctos 7: 169-194.Google Scholar

  • MOURER−CHAUVIRÉ C., TABUCE R., MAHBOUBI M., ADACI M. and BENSALAH M. 2011. A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa. Naturwissenschaften 98: 815-823.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MYRCHA A., JADWISZCZAK P., TAMBUSSI C., NORIEGA J., GAŹDZICKI A., TATUR A. and DEL VALLE R. 2002. Taxonomic revision of Eocene Antarctic penguins based on tarsometatarsal morphology. Polish Polar Research 23: 5-46.Google Scholar

  • OLSON S.L. 1984. A brief synopsis of the fossil birds from the Pamunkey River and other Tertiary marine deposits in Virginia. In: L.W. Ward and K. Krafft (eds) Stratigraphy and paleontology of the outcropping Tertiary beds in the Pamunkey River region, central Virginia coastal plain. Guidebook for Atlantic Coastal Plain Geological Association, Atlantic Coastal Plain Geological Association, Norfolk: 217-223.Google Scholar

  • OLSON S.L. 1985. The fossil record of birds. In: D.S.Farner, J.R. King, K.C. Parkes (eds) Avian Biology, Volume. 8. Academic Press, New York: 79-238.Google Scholar

  • OLSON S.L. and RASMUSSEN P.C. 2001. Miocene and Pliocene birds from the Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 90: 233-365.Google Scholar

  • OWRE O.T. 1967. Adaptation for locomotion and feeding in the Anhinga and the Double−crested Cormorant. A.O.U. Ornithological Monographs 6: 1-138.Google Scholar

  • OWEN R. 1856. On Dinornis Part VII: Containing a description of the bones of the leg and foot of the Dinornis elephantopus, Owen. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1856: 54-61.Google Scholar

  • OWEN R. 1873. Description of the skull of a dentigerous bird (Odontopteryx toliapicus, Ow.) from the London Clay of Sheppey. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 29: 511-522.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • OWEN R. 1879. Memoirs on the extinct wingless birds of New Zealand; with an appendix on those of England, Australia, Newfoundland, Mauritius, and Rodriguez. Van Voorst, London: 550 pp.Google Scholar

  • PARKES K.C. and CLARK G.A. 1966. An additional character linking ratites and tinamous, and an interpretation of their monophyly. Condor 68: 459-471.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • PATTERSON B. and KRAGLIEVICH L. 1960. Sistemática y nomenclatura de las aves fororracoideas del Plioceno Argentino. Publicación del Museo Municipal Ciencias Naturales y Tradicionales de Mar del Plata 1: 1-51.Google Scholar

  • PETERS D.S. 1987. Ein “Phorusrhacidae” aus dem Mittel−Eozan von Messel (Aves: Gruiformes: Cariamae). Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de Lyon 99: 71-87.Google Scholar

  • PYCRAFT W.P. 1900. On the morphology and phylogeny of the Palaeognathae (Ratitae and Crypturi) and Neognathae (Carinatae). Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 15: 149-290.Google Scholar

  • REGUERO M.A., MARENSSI A.M. and SANTILLANA S.N. 2002. Antarctic Peninsula and South America (Patagonia) Paleogene terrestrial faunas and environments: biogeographic relationships. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 179: 189-210.Google Scholar

  • RICHARDSON K.C. 1991. The Bony Casque of the Southern Cassowary Casuarius casuarius. The Emu 91: 56-58.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • SHUFELDT R.W. 1916. New extinct bird from South Carolina. Geological Magazine 3: 343-347.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • SINCLAIR W. and FARR M. 1932. Aves of the Santa Cruz beds. In:W. Scott (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University expeditions to Patagonia (1896-1899), v.7. Princeton University: 157-191.Google Scholar

  • STIDHAM T.A. 2004. New skull material of Osteodontornis orri (Aves: Pelagornithidae) from the Miocene of California. PaleoBios 24: 7-12.Google Scholar

  • STILWELL J.D., JONES C.M., LEVY R.H. and HARWOOD D.M. 1998. First fossil bird from East Antarctica. Antarctic Journal 23: 12-16.Google Scholar

  • TAMBUSSI C.P. 1989. Las aves del Plioceno tardío-Pleistoceno temprano de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Ph.D. dissertation, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata: 378 pp.Google Scholar

  • TAMBUSSI C.P. 2011. Palaeoenvironmental and faunal inferences based on the avian fossil record of Patagonia and Pampa: what works and what does not. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103: 458-474.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • TAMBUSSI C.P. andACOSTAHOSPITALECHE C. 2007. Antarctic birds (Neornithes) during the Cretaceous-Eocene times. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina 62: 604-617.Google Scholar

  • TAMBUSSI C.P. and NORIEGA J.I. 1996. Summary of the Avian Fossil Record from Southern South America. In: G. Arratia (ed.) Contributions of the southern South America to Vertebrate Paleontology. Müncher Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen: 245-264.Google Scholar

  • TAMBUSSI C.P., ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE C., REGUERO M. and MARENSSI S. 2006. Late Eocene penguins from West Antarctica: Systematic and biostratigraphy. In: J.E. Francis, D. Pirrie and J.A. Crame (eds) Cretaceous-Tertiary High−latitude palaeoenvironments, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Geological Society, Special Publications 258: 145-162.Google Scholar

  • TAMBUSSI C.P.,NORIEGA J.,GAŹDZICKI A., TATUR A., REGUERO M. andVIZCAÍNO S. 1994. Ratite bird from the Paleogene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. Polish Polar Research 15: 15-20.Google Scholar

  • TONNI E.P. 1980. Un pseudodontornitido (Pelecaniformes, Odontopterygia) de gran tamańo, del Terciario temprano de Antártida. Ameghiniana 17: 273-276.Google Scholar

  • TONNI E. and CIONE A. 1978. Una nueva colección de vertebrados del Terciario inferior de la isla Vicecomodoro Marambio (Seymour Island), Antártida. Obras Centenario Museo de la Plata 5: 73-79.Google Scholar

  • TONNI E. and TAMBUSSI C. 1985. Nuevos restos de Odontopterygia (Aves: Pelecaniformes) del Terciario temprano de Antártida. Ameghiniana 21: 121-124.Google Scholar

  • TORRES T. 2003. Antártica, un mundo oculto bajo el hielo. Editora del Instituto Antártico Chileno, Santiago: 95 pp.Google Scholar

  • WALSH S. and HUME J. 2001. A new Neogene marine avian assemblage from north−central Chile. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21: 484-491.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • WARHEIT K.I. 2002. The seabird fossil record and the role of paleontology in understanding seabird community structure. In: E.A. Schreiber and J. Burger (eds) Biology of Marine Birds. CRC Marine Biology Series, Boca Raton, Florida: 17-55.Google Scholar

  • WIMAN C. 1905. Vorläufige Mitteilung über die alttertiären Vertebraten der Seymourinsel. Bulletin of the Geological Institute of Uppsala 6: 247-253.Google Scholar

  • WORTHY T.H. and HOLDAWAY R.N. 2002. The lost world of the moa: prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press, Bloomington: 718 pp.Google Scholar

  • WROE S.,ARGOT C. andDICKMAN C. 2004. On the rarity of big fierce carnivores and primacy of isolation and area: tracking large mammalian carnivore diversity on two isolated continents. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 271: 1203-1211.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2012-04-18

Accepted: 2012-08-07

Published Online: 2012-10-31

Published in Print: 2012-10-01

Citation Information: Polish Polar Research, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 239–258, ISSN (Online) 2081-8262, ISSN (Print) 0138-0338, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10183-012-0014-3.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Federico L. Agnolin
Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 2017, Volume 41, Number 1, Page 101
Carolina Acosta Hospitaleche and Javier N. Gelfo
Annales de Paléontologie, 2015, Volume 101, Number 4, Page 315

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in