Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Polish Psychological Bulletin

The Journal of Committee for Psychological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.185
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.258

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 43, Issue 4


Cognitive aspects of participation: Evidence from two studies

Ryszard Stocki / Andrzej Bielecki
  • Faculty of Electrotechnics, Automation, Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2012-12-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10059-012-0033-2


The trouble of proving the effects of participation lies in the mismatch between three aspects of ownership: physical (possession), legal (ownership proper) and psychological (participation). In our interdisciplinary systemic model of ownership, we propose 10 relationships related to ownership/participation from: „A is a part of B” - greatest involvement to „A does not know about B” - the least involvement. „A” and „B” may take different values of: a person, an institution, a community, a group, an object (material, energetic, informational, purchasing). Once formalized we can view the studies in participation from one, system theory point of view, and formulate hypotheses related to many aspects of ownership. A multilevel analysis with multiple measures of both participation and effectiveness from two data sets has supported the proposed model.

Keywords : ownership; participation; systems theory; psychological ownership; possession; cognition

  • Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15,139-168.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Belk, R. (1991). The ineluctable mysteries of possessions. In F. Rudmin (Ed). To have possessions.A handbook of ownership and propert.y 17-56. Google Scholar

  • Berti, A.E., Bombi, A.S., Lis, A. (1982). The Child’s Conceptions about Means of Production and Their Owners .European Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 221-239.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Blasi, J. R., Kruse, D., & Bernstein, A. (2003). In the company of owners:The truth about stock options (and why every employee should have them). New York: Basic Books. Google Scholar

  • Case, J. (1998). The Open - Book Experience. Reading, Massachusetts: Perseus Books. Google Scholar

  • Csikszentmihalyi, M., Rochberg-Halton E. (1981). The meaning of things . Cambridge MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Dittmar, H. (1992). The social psychology of material possessions: to have is to be. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Google Scholar

  • Erdal, D. (2000). Employee ownership and retail co-operative performance and the wider social effects of worker co-operatives: Submission to The Co-operative Commission. London: Job Ownership Limited. Google Scholar

  • Fournier, S. & Richins, M. L. (1991). Some Theoretical and Popular Notions Concerning Materialism. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 403-414. Google Scholar

  • Friedman, M. (2000, 12-16 July). A New Look at the Materialism Concept in Consumer Research Practice. In: Conference Proceedings: Fairness & Cooperation. XXV Annual Colloquium on Research in Economic Psychology and SABE 2000 Conference. Baden, Vienna/Austria. Google Scholar

  • Fromm, E. (1976). To Have or to Be. London: Abacus. Google Scholar

  • Górnik-Durose, M. (2002). Psychologiczne aspekty posiadania - międzyinstrumentalnością a spłoeczną użytecznością dóbr materialnych . Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.Google Scholar

  • Górnik-Durose, M. & Zaleski, Z. (2004). Własność i posiadanie. (Ownership and possession) In. Tyszka, T. (ed) Psychologiaekonomiczna. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.Google Scholar

  • Graham, B. S. & Titus, P. S. (1979). The amazing oversight:Totalparticipation for productivity. New York: Amacom.Google Scholar

  • James, W. (1892/1989). Psychology. The briefer course. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press.Google Scholar

  • Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M. (1993). A Dark Side of the American Dream: Correlates of Financial Success as a Central Life Aspiration. Journalof Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410-422. Google Scholar

  • Kwiatkowski, E. (1947). Zarys dziejów gospodarczyćh świata Tom 1 (Anoutline of economic history of the world, vol1). Warsaw: PIW. Google Scholar

  • Lea, S., Tarpy, M.R., Webley, P. (1987). The Individual in the Economy. ASurvey of Economic Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

  • Lugon, C. (1971). Chrześcijańska komunistyczna Republika Guaranów1610-1778, Warszawa: PAX. Google Scholar

  • Maaloe, E. (1998). The Employee Owner. Copenhagen: Academic Press. Google Scholar

  • Marshall, H.,& Magruder, L. (1960). Relations between parent money education practices and children’s knowledge and use of money. Child Development, 31, 253-84. Google Scholar

  • Newson, J. & Newson, E. (1968). Four Years Old in an UrbanCommmmunity. London: Allen and Unwin. Newson, J.& Newson, E. (1976). Seven years old in the home environment. London: Allen and Unwin. Google Scholar

  • Perotin, V. & Robinson, A. (2003). Employee participation of prof t andownership. A review of issues and evidence. Luxemburg: European Parliament. Google Scholar

  • Pierce, J. L., Kostova, T., & Dirks, K.T. (2003). The State of Psychological Ownership: Integrating and Extending a Century of Research. Reviewof General Psychology, 7, 84-107. Google Scholar

  • Prokopowicz, P. (2011). Cultural models of work in a Canadian workerco-operative. Ph. D. Dissertation. Cracow: Jagiellonian Univrsity, Faculty of Philosophy. Google Scholar

  • Richins, M. L., Dawson, S. (1990). Measuring Material Values: A Preliminary Report of Scale Development. In: Goldberg, M. E., Gorn, G., Pollay, R. W., (Eds). Advances in Consumer Research, 17. Provo. UT: Association of for Consumer Research. Google Scholar

  • Richins, M. L.& Dawson, S. (1992). A Consumer Values Orientation for Materialism and Its Measurement: Scale Development and Validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 19, 303-316. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Semin, G. R., & Gergen, K. J. (1990). Everyday understanding: Socialscientific implications. London: SAGE. Google Scholar

  • Stack, J. & Burlingham, B. (2003). A Stake in the Outcome. Building aCulture of Ownership for the Long- Term Success of Your Business. New York: Currency Doubleday. Google Scholar

  • Stocki, R. (1992) Ownership and information processing. The firstsymposium on ownership .Jagiellonian University, Cracow June 1992) . Google Scholar

  • Stocki, R. Prokopowicz, P., Żmuda, G. (2008). Pełna partycypacja wzarządzaniu: Tajemnica największych eksperymentów mened żerskichświata. (Eng: Total Participation Management: The mystery of thegreatest management experiments in the world). Cracow: Oficyna a Woltera Kliwer Business. Google Scholar

  • Stocki, R. Prokopowicz, P., & Żmuda, G. (2012). Pełna partycypacja wzarządzaniu: Tajemnica największych eksperymentów mened żerskichświata. 2nd Edition. Warsaw: Oficyna a Wolters Kluwer Business. Google Scholar

  • Stocki, R. (submitted). The Level of the System’s Self-knowledge As a Measure of its Adaptive Ability in the Light of the Kwiatkowski’s System Development Rule. Submitted to Knowledge BasedSystems. Google Scholar

  • Summers, J. & Hyman, J. (2005). Employee participation and companyperformance. A Review of literat.u rYeork: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Google Scholar

  • Webley, P., Levine, R.M., & Lewis, A. (1993). A study in economic psychology: Children’s saving in a play economy. In Maital, S., & Maital S. (Eds). Economics and Psychology (pp. 61-80). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar

About the article

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ryszard Stocki, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty in Katowice, Kossutha 9, 40-844 Katowice, Poland. e-mail: ryszard@stocki.org

Published Online: 2012-12-14

Published in Print: 2012-12-01

Citation Information: Polish Psychological Bulletin, Volume 43, Issue 4, Pages 310–323, ISSN (Print) 0079-2993, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10059-012-0033-2.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in