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Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences.

The Journal of Latvian Academy of Sciences

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Volume 67, Issue 4-5


Determination of Bioactive Compounds and Mineral Substances in Latvian Birch and Maple Saps

Māra Kūka
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Lielā iela 2, Jelgava, LV-3001, LATVIA
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  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ilze Čakste
  • Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Lielā iela 2, Jelgava, LV-3001, LATVIA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Endija Geršebeka
  • Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Lielā iela 2, Jelgava, LV-3001, LATVIA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-12-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/prolas-2013-0069


Birch and maple saps contain carbohydrates and organic acids, B complex vitamins and vitamin C, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and mineral substances. The aim of the study was to quantitatively determine the concentrations of bioactive compounds and mineral substances in Latvian birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and maple (Acer platanoides L.) saps. Electrical conductivity was determined (629 and 967 S/cm in birch and maple saps, respectively) to characterise the total amount of mineral substances. In birch and maple saps the titratable acidity (0.50 and 0.70 mmol of NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) and formol number (0.25 and 0.20 mmol NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) were determined. The protein concentration was found to be higher in maple sap (171 and 127 mg/l, respectively). The antioxidant concentration, determined using quercetin as a standard, was 0.35 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/l in birch sap and 0.77 mg QE/l in maple sap. In conclusion, Latvian maple sap contains more bioactive and mineral compounds than birch sap. Latvian birch sap contains up to 20% more glucose and fructose than birch sap produced in Finland, but Latvian maple sap contains 10 to 40% less sucrose than sap produced in North America.


Bērzu un kļavu sulas satur ogļhidrātus un organiskās skābes, B grupas vitamīnus un C vitamīnu, flavonoīdus, glikozīdus un minerālvielas. Pētījuma mērķis - noteikt bioloģiski aktīvo savienojumu un minerālvielu saturu Latvijas bērzu (Betula pendula Roth.) un kļavu (Acer platanoides) sulās. Lai raksturotu minerālvielu kopējo daudzumu, tika mērīta elektrovadītspēja (bērzu un kļavu sulās atbilstoši 629 un 967 ļ.tS/cm). Minerālvielu saturs tika noteikts spektrofotometriski. Bērzu un kļavu sulās tika noteikti kopējais skābums (atbilstoši 0,50 un 0,70 mmol NaOH uz litru sulas) un formaldehīdskaitļi (atbilstoši (0.25 and 0.20 mmol NaOH uz litru sulas). Kļavu sula satur vairāk proteīnus nekā bērzu sula (atbilstoši 171 and 127 mg/1). Fruktozes, glikozes un saharozes saturs tika noteikts, izmantojot augstefektīvu šķidrumu hromatogrāfiju. Askorbīnskābes saturs tika noteikts jodometriski. Kā standartvielu izmantojot kvercetīnu, tika raksturots antioksidantu saturs un bērzu sulā tas bija 0,35 ļiig kvercetīna ekvivalentu (QE)/1, bet kļavu sulā 0,77 ng QE/1. Kopumā Latvijas kļavu sula satur vairāk bioloģiski aktīvo savienojumu un minerālvielu nekā bērzu sula.

Keywords : birch sap; maple sap; bioactive compounds; mineral substances

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About the article

Published Online: 2013-12-01

Published in Print: 2013-11-01

Citation Information: Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences, Volume 67, Issue 4-5, Pages 437–441, ISSN (Print) 1407-009X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/prolas-2013-0069.

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