Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics

Editor-in-Chief: Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Katarzyna

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.250
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.259

CiteScore 2017: 0.36

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.151
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.485

Online
ISSN
1897-7499
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 45, Issue 2

Issues

Phonology as Human Behaviour: Clinical Phonetics, Phonology and Prosody

Yishai Tobin
Published Online: 2009-06-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10010-009-0019-1

Phonology as Human Behaviour: Clinical Phonetics, Phonology and Prosody

This paper introduces the theory of Phonology as Human Behaviour (PHB); summarises the basic theoretical and methodological tenets of the theory and shows how it has been applied to clinical phonetics, phonology and prosody. The theory of PHB, developed by William Diver and his students of the Columbia School, combines aspects of the "communication factor" inherent in Prague School phonology with aspects of the "human factor" inherent in André Martinet's functional diachronic phonology. The major parameters of the theory are presented according to the Saussurean-based semiotic definition of language as a sign system used by human beings to communicate. The fundamental axiom underlying the theory is that language represents a compromise in the struggle to achieve maximum communication with minimal effort. The major contribution of the theory is that it provides a motivation to explain the non-random distribution of phonemes within the speech signal in language in general and in typical and atypical speech in particular.

Keywords: PHB; clinical phonetics; phonology; prosody

  • Aaronson, D. and P. Reiber (eds.). 1979. Psycholinguistic research: Implications and applications. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

  • Adam, G. 2002. From variable to optimal grammar: Evidence from language acquisition and language change. (Unpublished PhD dissertation, Tel-Aviv University.)Google Scholar

  • Adi-Bensaid, L. 2006. The prosodic development of Hebrew-speaking hearing impaired children. (Unpublished PhD dissertation, Tel-Aviv University.)Google Scholar

  • Adi-Bensaid, L. and O. Bat-El. 2004. "The development of the prosodic word in the speech of a hearing impaired child with a cochlear implant device". Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders 2. 187-206.Google Scholar

  • Adi-Bensaid, L. and G. Tubul-Lavy. 2009. "Consonant-free words: Evidence from Hebrewspeaking children with cochlear-implants". Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics 23(2). 122-132.Google Scholar

  • Ali, S.E. and S. Hameed 2007. "Phonology as human behaviour: The case of the definite article al in the Taiz dialect of Yemeni Arabic". Paper presented at the Ninth International Columbia School Conference on the Interaction of Linguistic Form and Meaning with Human Behaviour, February 19, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Andrews, E. and Y. Tobin (eds.). 1996. Towards a calculus of meaning: Studies in markedness, distinctive features and deixis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Archangeli, D. and T. Langendoen. (1997). Optimality theory: An overview. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Aulanko, R. and M. Leiwo (eds.). Studies in logopedics and phonetics 2. (Publications of the Department of Phonetics, University of Helsinki, Series B: Phonetics, Logopedics and Speech Communication 3.)Google Scholar

  • Azim, A. 1989. "Some problems in the phonology of modern standard Urdu". Paper presented at the First International Conference on Columbia School Linguistics, August 24, 1989.Google Scholar

  • Azim, A. 1993. "Problems of aspiration in modern standard Urdu". Paper given at the Third International Conference on Columbia School Linguistics, October 11, 1993.Google Scholar

  • Azim, A. 1995. "The phonology of the vocalic systems of modern standard Urdu". Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on Columbia School Linguistics, February 20, 1995.Google Scholar

  • Azim, A. 1997. "Revisiting the phonology of the vocalic systems of modern standard Urdu". Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Columbia School Linguistics, February 16, 1997.Google Scholar

  • Bader, S. and D. Gibbon. 2008. "Phonological disorders of Arabic-speaking children with speech and language impairments". Paper presented at the Clinical Workshop Session of the 39th Poznań Linguistics Meeting, September 11, 2008.Google Scholar

  • Ball, M.J. and M. Duckworth (eds). 1996. Advances in clinical phonetics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Ben-David, A. 2001. Language acquisition and phonological theory: Universal and variable processes across children and across languages. (Unpublished PhD thesis, Tel-Aviv University [in Hebrew].)Google Scholar

  • Bluhme H. (ed.). 1988. Beiträge zur quantitativen Linguistik. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.Google Scholar

  • Bračič, S., D. Čuden, S. Podgoršek and V. Pogačnik (eds.). Linguistic studies in the European year of languages. Proceedings of the 36th Linguistic Colloquium, Ljubljana 2001.Google Scholar

  • Brown, K. (ed.). 2005. Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. (2nd ed., vol. 12.) Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar

  • Buk, E. 2003. Phonology as human behaviour: Inflectional morphology in Old Church Slavonic, old and modern Russian. (Unpublished MA thesis, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva.)Google Scholar

  • Cohen, E. (2001). Phonology as human behaviour: Inflectional morphology in Latin. (Ms., Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva [in Hebrew].)Google Scholar

  • Contini-Morava, E., R.S. Kirsner and B. Rodriguez-Bachiller (eds.). 2004. Cognitive and communicative approaches to linguistic analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Contini-Morava E. and B. Sussman Goldberg (eds.). 1995. Meaning as explanation: Advances in linguistic sign theory. Berlin: Mouton de GruyterGoogle Scholar

  • Contini-Morava, E. and Y. Tobin (eds.). 2000. Between grammar and lexicon. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Davis, J. 1987. A combinatory phonology of Italian". Columbia University Working Papers in Linguistics 8. 1-99.Google Scholar

  • Davis, J. 2006. "Phonology without the phoneme". In: Davis, J., R.J. Gorup and N. Stern (eds.). 163-175.Google Scholar

  • Davis, J., R.J. Gorup and N. Stern (eds.). 2006. Advances in functional linguistics: Columbia school beyond its origins. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Dekker, A. and B. de Jonge. 2006. "Phonology as human behaviour: The case of Peninsular Spanish". In Reid, W., R. Otheguy and N. Stern (eds.). 131-142.Google Scholar

  • Denes, P.B. and E.N. Dinson. 1963. The speech chain: The physics and biology of spoken language. Bell Telephone Laboratories.Google Scholar

  • Diaz-Campos, M. (ed.). Proceedings of the second conference on laboratory approaches to Spanish phonetics and phonology. Baltimore, MD: Cascadilla Press.Google Scholar

  • Dinnsen, D.A. (ed.). 1979. Current approaches to phonological theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar

  • Diver, W. 1975. "Introduction". Columbia University Working Papers in Linguistics 2. 1-20.Google Scholar

  • Diver, W. 1979. "Phonology as human behaviour". In: Aaronson, D. and P. Reiber (eds.). 161-186.Google Scholar

  • Diver, W. 1993. "The phonology of extremes: The correlation of initials and finals". Paper presented at the Third International Columbia School Conference, October 11, 1993.Google Scholar

  • Diver, W. (1995). "The theory". In: Contini-Morava, E. and B. Sussman Goldberg (eds.). 43-114.Google Scholar

  • Donegan, P. and D. Stampe. 1979. "The study of natural phonology". In: Dinnsen, D.A. (ed.). 126-173.Google Scholar

  • Dreer, I. 2006. "Phonology as human behaviour: A combinatory phonology of Byelorussian". In: Reid, W., R. Otheguy and N. Stern (eds.). 107-130.Google Scholar

  • Dressler, W. 1996. "Principles of naturalness in phonology and across components". In: Hurch, B. and R. Rhodes (eds.), Natural phonology: The state of the art. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 41-52.Google Scholar

  • Dressler, W., W. Mayertaler, O. Panagl and W.U. Wurzel (eds.). 1987. Leitmotifs in natural phonology. Amsterdams: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. 2001. "Phonotactic constraints are preferences". In: K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk (ed.). 69-100.Google Scholar

  • Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. (ed.). 2001. Constraints and preferences. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. 2002. Beats-and-Binding Phonology. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar

  • Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. and J. Przedlacka. (eds.). 2005. English pronunciation models: A changing scene. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag.Google Scholar

  • Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. 2007. "Natural Phonology: Universal principles for the study of language (insiders meet outsiders.)". In: Trouvain, J. and W.J. Barry (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Saarbrücken: University of Saarbrücken. 71-75. <www.icphs2007.de> www.icphs2007.de

  • Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. and J. Weckwerth. 2003. Future challenges for natural linguistics. München: Lincolm.Google Scholar

  • Enbe, C., J. Gurlekian and Y. Tobin. 2006. "A laboratory analysis of suprasegmental features in normal and pathological speech of Buenos Aires Spanish according to the theory of phonology as human behaviour". In: Diaz-Campos, M. (ed.). 83-105.Google Scholar

  • Enbe, C. and Y. Tobin. 2007. "Sociolinguistic variation in the intonation of Buenos Aires Spanish". Sociolinguistic Studies 1(3). 347-382.Google Scholar

  • Enbe, C. 2009. "The prosody of typical and atypical speech of Buenos Aires Spanish". In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 173-186.Google Scholar

  • Fatihi, A.R. 2005. "The Economy of articulation in Mewati phonology". Language in India 5. 1-8.Google Scholar

  • Fatihi, A.R. 2007. "Using Columbia-school framework to describe speech errors of hearing impaired Hindi-Urdu-speaking children". Paper presented at the Ninth International Columbia School Conference on the Interaction of Linguistic Form and Meaning with Human Behaviour, February 19, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Fava, E. (ed.). 2002. Linguistic theory, speech and language pathology, speech therapy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Flores, N. 1997. "The distribution of post-vocalic phonological units in Spanish". Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Columbia School Linguistics, February 15, 1997.Google Scholar

  • Fuks, O. and Y. Tobin. 2008. "The signs b- and b-bent in Israeli sign language according to the theory of phonology as human behaviour". International Journal of Clinical and Phonetics and Linguistics 22(4-5). 391-400.Google Scholar

  • Fuks, O. 2009. The status of "Movement" in the semiotic phonology of Israeli Sign Language. In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 201-212.Google Scholar

  • Fuks, O. and Y. Tobin. 2009. "Struggle and compromise between the striving for transparency and the tendency for ease of performance in the semiotic phonology of Israeli Sign Language". In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 213-224.Google Scholar

  • Granström, B. and L. Nord (eds.). 1993. Nordic prosody VI. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell International.Google Scholar

  • Green, H. and Y. Tobin. 2008a. "The intonation patterns of Hebrew-speaking children with High Functioning Autism". Proceedings of the 4th speech prosody Campinas Brazil, May 7, 2008. 327-240.Google Scholar

  • Green, H. and Y. Tobin. 2008b. "A phonetic analysis of the prosody of Hebrew-speaking children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders". Paper presented at the 18th International Congress of Linguists, Seoul Korea, July 21-26, 2008.Google Scholar

  • Green, H. and Y. Tobin. In press. Prosodic analysis is difficult — but worth it: A study in High Functioning Autism". International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology.Google Scholar

  • Halpern, O. and Y. Tobin. 2008. "‘Non-vocalisation’ — A phonological error process in the speech of severely and profoundly hearing impaired adults according to the theory of phonology as human behaviour". International Journal of Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics 22(10-11). 824-834.Google Scholar

  • Hameed, S. 2004. "Interaction of physiology and communication in the make-up and distribution of stops in Lucknow Urdu". In: Contini-Morava, E., R. Kirsner and B. Rodriguez-Bachiller (eds.). 277-288.Google Scholar

  • Jabeen, Sh. 1993. Economy of articulation in the phonology of Bihar Urdu. (Unpublished PhD dissertation, Aligarch Moslem University.)Google Scholar

  • Jakobson, R. 1941. Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze. Uppsala: Uppsala Universiteits arsskift.Google Scholar

  • Joue, G. and N. Collier. 2006. "Functional motivations for the sound patterns of English non-lexical interjections". In Reid, W., R. Otheguy and N. Stern (eds.). 143-162.Google Scholar

  • Kager, R. 1999. Optimality theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Liberman, A. 1991. "Postscript". In: Trubetzkoy, N., The legacy of Genghis Kahn. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications. 295-375.Google Scholar

  • Martinet, A. 1955. Économie des changements phonétiques: Traité de phonologie diachronique. Berne: Éditions A. Franke.Google Scholar

  • McCarthy, J. 2002. A thematic guide to optimality theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • McCarthy, J. 2003. Optimality theory in phonology: A reader. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • McCarthy, J. 2008. Doing optimality theory: Applying theory to data. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • McNeilage, P. (ed.). 1983. The production of speech. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Miyakoda, H. 2003. "The theory of phonology as human behaviour: A focus on Japanese Speech errors". Sophia Linguistica 50. 197-209.Google Scholar

  • Moore, K. 1991a. "Speech rate, phonation rate, and pauses in cartoon and sports narrations". In: Aulanko, R. and M. Leiwo (eds.). 135-143.Google Scholar

  • Moore, K. 1991b. "A taxonomy of pauses in Finnish". In: Aulanko, R. and M. Leiwo (eds.). 145-150.Google Scholar

  • Moore, K. 1993. "Developmental disfluencies in preschool children". In: Granström, B. and L. Nord (eds.), Nordic prosody VI. 173-181.Google Scholar

  • Moore, K. and A.M. Korpijaakko-Huuhka. 1996. "The clinical assessment of fluency in Finnish". In: Ball, M.J. and M. Duckworth (eds.), Advances in clinical phonetics. 171-196.Google Scholar

  • Moore, K. and C. Rosenberg-Wolf. 1998. "Perceptions of hesitations in speech". In: Werner, S. (ed.), Nordic Prosody VII. 195-269.Google Scholar

  • Nissan, Y. 2007. "The phonetic-semantic interface in the Hebrew triconsonantal root system". Paper presented at the Ninth International Columbia School Conference on the Interaction of Linguistic Form and Meaning with Human Behaviour, February 19, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Ohala, J.J. 1983. "The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints". In: McNeilage, P. (ed.). 189-216.Google Scholar

  • Oron, N. (2003). Inflectional systems in Latin, Spanish and Portuguese according to the theory of phonology as human behaviour. (Ms., Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva.)Google Scholar

  • Palek, B. and O. Fujimara (eds.). 2000. Proceedings of LP 2000: Item order and its variety and linguistic and phonetic consequences. Prague: Charles University Karolinium Press.Google Scholar

  • Paltiel-Gedalyovich, L. 2009. "A client-centered decision-making model based on Phonology as Human Behaviour". In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 117-134.Google Scholar

  • Perelshtein, L. 2008. Inflectional and derivational Hebrew morphology according to the theory of phonology as human behaviour. (Unpublished MA thesis, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva.)Google Scholar

  • Podzhrebin, I. 2005. The natural and the supernatural in the prose of Michail Bulgakov. (Unpublished PhD thesis, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva.)Google Scholar

  • Połczyńska-Fiszer, M. 2006. First and second language dysarthria in TBI patients after prolonged coma. (Unpublished PhD thesis, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań.)Google Scholar

  • Połczyńska M. 2009. "Dysarthric processes in first and second language used by patients with traumatic brain injury". In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 137-165.Google Scholar

  • Połczyńska M, and Y. Tobin. 2009. "Processes in post-traumatic dysarthria: A longitudinal case study". In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 157-170.Google Scholar

  • Roe-Portianski, I. 2007. A phonological analysis of a literary work. Paper presented at the Ninth International Columbia School Conference on the Interaction of Linguistic Form and Meaning with Human Behaviour, February 19, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Reid, W., R. Otheguy and Stern, N. (eds.). 2000. Signal, meaning and message: Perspectives on sign-based linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Saif, S. 2004. Phonology as human behaviour: Inflectional morphology in classical, modern and urban Palestinian Arabic. (Unpublished MA thesis, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva.)Google Scholar

  • Salmon, J. 2002. Inflectional morphology in Hungarian according to the theory of phonology as human behaviour. (Ms., Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva.)Google Scholar

  • Sampson, G. 1980. Schools of linguistics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Saussure, F. de. 1916/1972. Cours de linguistique générale. Paris: Payot.Google Scholar

  • Schocken. B. 2008. A supporting system for lip-reading for hearing-impaired-users. (Unpublished PhD dissertation, Tel-Aviv University.)Google Scholar

  • Schocken, B., N. Geri, S. Neumann and Y. Tobin. 2008. "An attention economy perspective on the effectiveness of incomplete information". Informing Science: The International Journal of an International Transdiscipline 11. 1-15.Google Scholar

  • Stampe, D. 1972/1979. A dissertation on natural phonology. New York: Garland.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1986. Review of Geoffrey Sampson: Schools of linguistics. Lingua 68. 99-108.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. (ed.). 1988a. The Prague school and its legacy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1988b. "Phonetics versus phonology: The Prague school and beyond". In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 49-70.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1988c. "Two quantitative approaches to phonology: A contrastive analysis". In: Bluhme, H. (ed.). 71-112.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1990a. Semiotics and linguistics. London: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1990b. "A combinatory phonology of the Hebrew triconsonantal (CCC) root system". La Linguistique 26. 99-114.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1990c. "Principles for a contrastive phonotactics: The Hebrew triconsonantal (CCC) root system: A case in point". Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics 26. 137-153.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1993. Aspect in the English verb: Process and result in language. London: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1994. Invariance, markedness and distinctive feature analysis: A contrastive study of sign systems in English and Hebrew. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. (ed.). 1995. Phonology as Human Behaviour: Theoretical implications and cognitive and clinical applications. (Special Issue of Dibur u-Shmiya: Speech and Hearing Disorders, The Professional Journal of the Israeli Speech, Language and Hearing Association. Issue 18. Tel-Aviv: The Israel Speech and Hearing Association. [in Hebrew].)Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1997a. Phonology as Human Behaviour: Theoretical implications and clinical applications. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1997b. "Developmental and clinical phonology: Roman Jakobson and beyond". Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 29. 127-166.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 1999. "Developmental and clinical phonology: The Prague school and beyond". Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague, Nouvelle SéRie/Prague Linguistic Circle Papers 3. 53-68.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2000a. "Phonology as human behaviour: Initial consonant clusters across languages". In Reid, W., R. Otheguy and N. Stern (eds.). 191-255.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2000b. "Comparing and contrasting optimality theory with the theory of phonology as human behaviour". The Linguistic Review 17, 2-4. 303-322.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2001. "Trying to ‘make sense’ out of phonological reduplication in Hebrew". In Palek, B. and O. Fujimara (Eds.) Proceedings of LP 2000: Item order and its variety and linguistic and phonetic consequences (pp. 227-260). Prague: Charles University Karolinium Press.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2002. "Phonology as human Behaviour: Theoretical implications and cognitive and clinical applications". In Fava, E. (ed.). 3-22.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2004. "Between phonology and lexicon: The Hebrew triconsonantal (CCC) root system revolving around /r/ C-r-C". In: Contini-Morava, E., R. Kirsner, B. Rodriguez-Bachiller (eds.). 289-323.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2006. "Phonology as Human Behaviour: Inflectional systems in English". In: Davis, J., R. Gorup and N. Stern (eds.). 63-86.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2007a. "A semiotic view of signed versus spoken language". Actas-1 del X Simposio Internacional de Comunicación Social, Santiago de Cuba 2007. 428-432.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2007b. "Arbitrariness versus iconicity in signed and spoken languages". Memorias de la Conferencia Linguistica Internacional 2007. Havana: El Instituto de Lingüística y Literatura. (CD-ROM.)Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2007c. "Comparing and contrasting Natural Phonology with the theory of Phonology as Human Behavior". In: Trouvain, J. and W.J. Barry (eds.). 103-106.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2007d. "Structuralist phonology: Prague school". In: Brown, K. (ed.). 170-177.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2008. "Looking at sign language as a visual and gestural shorthand". Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 44(1). 103-119.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2009a. "Comparing and contrasting natural phonology, optimality theory and phonology as human Behaviour". Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 45(2). 169-189.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. 2009b. "Phonology as human behaviour: Applying theory to the clinic". In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 89-100.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. (ed.). 2009. Special thematic issue on Phonology as Human Behaviour (The Asia-Pacific Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing 12(2)).Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. and H. Miyakoda. 2004a. "An analysis of Japanese loanwords based on the theory of phonology as human behaviour". Linguistik International 13. 681-690.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. and H. Miyakoda. 2004b. "An analysis of Japanese loan words based on the theory of phonology as human behaviour". In: Bračič, S., D. Čuden, S. Podgoršek and V. Pogačnik (eds.). 681-690.Google Scholar

  • Tobin, Y. and Miyakoda, H. 2006. "Phonological processes of Japanese based on the theory of phonology as human behaviour". In Reid, W., R. Otheguy and N. Stern (eds.). 63-86.Google Scholar

  • Tubul, R. 2002. Inflectional systems in Ladino according to the theory of phonology as human behaviour. (Ms., Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva.)Google Scholar

  • Trubetzkoy, N. 1939. Grundzüge der Phonologie. (Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague 7.)Google Scholar

  • Werner, S. (ed.). 1998. Nordic Prosody VII. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar

  • Zipf, G.K. 1949. Human behaviour and the principle of least effort. Cambidge, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar

  • Zivan, S. 2009. "Speech disorders at different stages of development and in diverse social contexts (A case study)". In: Tobin, Y. (ed.). 103-116.Google Scholar

  • Zwirner, E. and K. Zwirner, K. 1966. Grundfragen der Phonometrie. Basel: Karger-Verlag.Google Scholar

  • Zwirner, E. and Zwirner, K. 1970. Principles of phonometrics. (Transl. by H. Bluhme.) Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar

About the article


Published Online: 2009-06-25

Published in Print: 2009-06-01


Citation Information: Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 327–352, ISSN (Online) 1897-7499, ISSN (Print) 0137-2459, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10010-009-0019-1.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in