Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

 

Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik

Editor-in-Chief: Haucap, Justus

Ed. by Arnold, Lutz / Corneo, Giacomo / Grimm, Veronika / Horn, Karen / Schneider, Friedrich / Wagner, Franz / Winter, Joachim


CiteScore 2018: 0.37

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.225
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.798

Online
ISSN
1468-2516
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 15, Issue 2

Issues

Ökonometrische Methoden zur Evaluierung kausaler Effekte der Wirtschaftspolitik

Franziska Kugler
  • Corresponding author
  • ifo Zentrum für Bildungs- und Innovationsökonomik, ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Guido Schwerdt / Ludger Wößmann
Published Online: 2014-06-04 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pwp-2014-0013

Zusammenfassung

Die Öffentlichkeit hat ein Interesse zu wissen, ob politische Maßnahmen die mit ihnen verfolgten Ziele wirksam und wirtschaftlich erreichen. In empirischen Studien, die als Grundlage für evidenzbasierte Wirtschaftspolitik dienen können, werden häufig komplexe Methoden verwendet, um tatsächliche kausale Wirkungen von anderweitig verursachten Zusammenhängen zu unterscheiden. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen nicht-technischen Überblick über Intuition und Anwendungsbeispiele des modernen wissenschaftlichen Instrumentariums zur Evaluierung kausaler Effekte. Die betrachteten ökonometrischen Methoden umfassen kontrolliert randomisierte Experimente, die Zufallsvergabe überzeichneter Programme, den Instrumentvariablen-Ansatz, den Regressions-Diskontinuitäten-Ansatz, den Differenz-von-Differenzen-Ansatz sowie Panelmethoden mit fixen Effekten. Diese experimentellen und quasi-experimentellen Designs sollen der Wirtschaftspolitik helfen zu lernen, was funktioniert.

Literatur

  • Abadie, Alberto, Alexis Diamond und Jens Hainmueller (2010). Synthetic control methods for comparative case studies: Estimating the effect of California’s tobacco control program. Journal of the American Statistical Association 105 (490): 493–505.Google Scholar

  • Abdulkadiroğlu, Atila, Joshua D. Angrist, Susan M. Dynarski, Thomas J. Kane und Parag A. Pathak (2011). Accountability and flexibility in public schools: Evidence from Boston’s charters and pilots. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (2): 699–748.Google Scholar

  • Aichele, Rahel und Gabriel Felbermayr (2012). Kyoto and the carbon footprint of nations. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 63 (3): 336–354.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Aichele, Rahel und Gabriel Felbermayr (2014). Kyoto and carbon leakage: An empirical analysis of the carbon content of bilateral trade. Review of Economics and Statistics: forthcoming.Google Scholar

  • Allmendinger, Jutta und Annette Kohlmann (2005). Datenverfügbarkeit und Datenzugang am Forschungsdatenzentrum der Bundesagentur für Arbeit im Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung. Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv 88 (2): 159–182.Google Scholar

  • Anger, Silke, Michael Kvasnicka und Thomas Siedler (2011). One last puff? Public smoking bans and smoking behavior. Journal of Health Economics 30 (3): 591–601.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D. (2004). American education research changes tack. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 20 (2): 198–212.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D., Eric Bettinger und Michael Kremer (2006). Long-term educational consequences of secondary school vouchers: Evidence from administrative records in Colombia. American Economic Review 96 (3): 847–862.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D., Guido W. Imbens und Donald B. Rubin (1996). Identification of causal effects using instrumental variables. Journal of the American Statistical Association 91 (434): 444–455.Google Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D. und Alan B. Krueger (1999). Empirical strategies in labor economics. In Handbook of Labor Economics, hrsg. von Orley Ashenfelter und David Card. Amsterdam: North Holland: 1277–1366.Google Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D. und Alan B. Krueger (2001). Instrumental variables and the search for identification: From supply and demand to natural experiments. Journal of Economic Perspectives 15 (4): 69–85.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D. und Victor Lavy (1999). Using Maimondides’ rule to estimate the effect of class size on scholastic achievement. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 (2): 533–575.Google Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D. und Jörn-Steffen Pischke (2009). Mostly harmless econometrics: An empiricist’s companion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D. und Jörn-Steffen Pischke (2010). The credibility revolution in empirical economics: How better research design is taking the con out of econometrics. Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (2): 3–30.Google Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua und Victor Lavy (2009). The effects of high stakes high school achievement awards: Evidence from a randomized trial. American Economic Review 99 (4): 1384–1414.Google Scholar

  • Arni, Patrick (2012). Kausale Evaluation von Pilotprojekten: Die Nutzung von Randomisierung in der Praxis. LeGes – Gesetzgebung und Evaluation 23 (3): 355–386.Google Scholar

  • Ashenfelter, Orley und Alan B. Krueger (1994). Estimates of the economic return to schooling from a new sample of twins. American Economic Review 84 (5): 1157–1173.Google Scholar

  • Augurzky, Boris, Thomas K. Bauer, Arndt R. Reichert, Christoph M. Schmidt und Harald Tauchmann (2012). Does money burn fat? Evidence from a randomized experiment. IZA Discussion Paper 6888. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.Google Scholar

  • Baltagi, Badi H. (2013). Econometric analysis of panel data. Fifth ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar

  • Banerjee, Abhijit V. und Esther Duflo (2009). The experimental approach to development economics. Annual Review of Economics 1 (1): 151–178.Google Scholar

  • Bauer, Thomas K., Stefan Bender, Alfredo R. Paloyo und Christoph M. Schmidt (2012). Evaluating the labor-market effects of compulsory military service. European Economic Review 56 (4): 814–829.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bauer, Thomas K., Michael Fertig und Christoph M. Schmidt (2009). Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung: Eine Einführung. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Bauernschuster, Stefan (2013). Dismissal protection and small firms’ hirings: Evidence from a policy reform. Small Business Economics 40 (2): 293–307.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bauernschuster, Stefan, Oliver Falck und Ludger Wößmann (2011). Surfing alone? The Internet and social capital: Evidence from an unforeseeable technological mistake. CESifo Working Paper 3469. Munich: CESifo.Google Scholar

  • Bauernschuster, Stefan und Martin Schlotter (2013). Public child care and mothers’ labor supply: Evidence from two quasi-experiments. CESifo Working Paper 4191. Munich: CESifo.Google Scholar

  • Becker, Sascha O., Peter H. Egger und Maximilian von Ehrlich (2010). Going NUTS: The effect of EU Structural Funds on regional performance. Journal of Public Economics 94 (9–10): 578–590.Google Scholar

  • Becker, Sascha O., Peter H. Egger und Maximilian von Ehrlich (2013). Absorptive capacity and the growth and investment effects of regional transfers: A regression discontinuity design with heterogeneous treatment effects. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 5 (4): 29–77.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bedard, Kelly und Elizabeth Dhuey (2006). The persistence of early childhood maturity: International evidence of long-run age effects. Quarterly Journal of Economics 121 (4): 1437–1472.Google Scholar

  • Belfield, Clive R., Milagros Nores, Steve W. Barnett und Lawrence J. Schweinhart (2006). The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program. Journal of Human Resources 41 (1): 162–190.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bergemann, Annette, Bernd Fitzenberger und Stefan Speckesser (2009). Evaluating the dynamic employment effects of training programs in East Germany using conditional difference-in-differences. Journal of Applied Econometrics 24 (5): 797–823.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bertrand, Marianne, Esther Duflo und Sendhil Mullainathan (2004). How much should we trust differences-in-differences estimates? Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 (1): 249–275.Google Scholar

  • Besley, Timothy und Anne Case (2000). Unnatural experiments? Estimating the incidence of endogenous policies. Economic Journal 110 (467): F672-F694.Google Scholar

  • Bettinger, Eric P. (2012). Paying to learn: The effect of financial incentives on elementary school test scores. Review of Economics and Statistics 94 (3): 686–698.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bhattacharya, Jay, Christina Gathmann und Grant Miller (2013). The Gorbachev anti-alcohol campaign and Russia’s mortality crisis. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 5 (2): 232–260.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Biewen, Martin, Bernd Fitzenberger, Aderonke Osikominu und Marie Paul (2014). The effectiveness of public sponsored training revisited: The importance of data and methodological choices. Journal of Labor Economics forthcoming.Google Scholar

  • Black, Sandra E., Paul J. Devereux und Kjell G. Salvanes (2005). Why the apple doesn’t fall far: Understanding intergenerational transmission of human capital. American Economic Review 95 (1): 437–449.Google Scholar

  • Black, Sandra E., Paul J. Devereux und Kjell G. Salvanes (2007). From the cradle to the labor market? The effect of birth weight on adult outcomes. Quarterly Journal of Economics 122 (1): 409–439.Google Scholar

  • Boeri, Tito und Juan F. Jimeno (2005). The effects of employment protection: Learning from variable enforcement. European Economic Review 49 (8): 2057–2077.Google Scholar

  • Boockmann, Bernhard, Raimund Krumm, Michael Neumann und Pia Rattenhuber (2013). Turning the switch: An evaluation of the minimum wage in the German electrical trade using repeated natural experiments. German Economic Review 14 (3): 316–348.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bouguen, Adrien und Marc Gurgand (2012). Randomized controlled experiments in education. EENEE Analytical Report 11. http://www.eenee.org/doc/eenee_ar11.pdf (30.6.2013).

  • Brinkmann, Christian, Reinhard Hujer und Susanne Koch (2006). Evaluation aktiver Arbeitsmarktpolitik in Deutschland – eine Einführung. Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung 39 (3/4): 319–327.Google Scholar

  • Bronzini, Raffaello und Guido de Blasio (2006). Evaluating the impact of investment incentives: The case of Italy’s Law 488/1992. Journal of Urban Economics 60 (2): 327–349.Google Scholar

  • Brunello, Giorgio, Margherita Fort und Guglielmo Weber (2009). Changes in compulsory schooling, education and the distribution of wages in Europe. Economic Journal 119 (536): 516–539.Google Scholar

  • Buettner, Thiess (2006). The incentive effect of fiscal equalization transfers on tax policy. Journal of Public Economics 90 (3): 477–497.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Buettner, Thiess und Georg Wamser (2013). Internal debt and multinational profit shifting: Empirical evidence from firm-level panel data. National Tax Journal 66 (1): 63–95.Google Scholar

  • Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales und Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (2011). Sachstandsbericht der Evaluation der Instrumente. Berlin: Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales. http://www.bmas.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/ arbeitsmarktpol_instr_iab_studie.pdf?__blob=publicationFile (30.6.2013).

  • Caliendo, Marco, Konstantinos Tatsiramos und Arne Uhlendorff (2013). Benefit duration, unemployment duration and job match quality: A regression-discontinuity approach. Journal of Applied Econometrics 28 (4): 604–627.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Card, David (1999). The causal effect of education on earnings. In Handbook of Labor Economics, hrsg. von Orley Ashenfelter und David Card. Amsterdam: North-Holland: 1801–1863.Google Scholar

  • Card, David, Jochen Kluve und Andrea Weber (2010). Active labour market policy evaluations: A meta-analysis. Economic Journal 120 (548): F452-F477.Google Scholar

  • Card, David und Alan B. Krueger (1994). Minimum wages and employment: A case study of the fast-food industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. American Economic Review 84 (4): 772–793.Google Scholar

  • Chetty, Raj, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach und Danny Yagan (2011). How does your kindergarten classroom affect your earnings? Evidence from Project STAR. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (4): 1593–1660.Google Scholar

  • Chetty, Raj, John N. Friedman und Jonah E. Rockoff (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood. NBER Working Paper 17699. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research (December).Google Scholar

  • Criscuolo, Chiara, Ralf Martin, Henry Overman und John Van Reenen (2012). The causal effects of an industrial policy. NBER Working Paper 17842. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar

  • Cullen, Julie Berry, Brian A Jacob und Steven Levitt (2006). The effect of school choice on participants: Evidence from randomized lotteries. Econometrica 74 (5): 1191–1230.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Deaton, Angus (2010). Instruments, randomization, and learning about development. Journal of Economic Literature 48 (2): 424–455.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dee, Thomas S. (2005). A teacher like me: Does race, ethnicity, or gender matter? American Economic Review 95 (2): 158–165.Google Scholar

  • Deming, David J., Justine S. Hastings, Thomas J. Kane und Douglas O. Staiger (2014). School choice, school quality and postsecondary attainment. American Economic Review 104 (3): 991–1013.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • DiNardo, John und David S. Lee (2011). Program evaluation and research designs. In Handbook of Labor Economics, Volume 4, Part A, hrsg. von Ashenfelter Orley und Card David. Amsterdam: North Holland: 463–536.Google Scholar

  • Dustmann, Christian und Uta Schönberg (2012). Expansions in maternity leave coverage and children’s long-term outcomes. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 4 (3): 190–224.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dwenger, Nadja, Johanna Storck und Katharina Wrohlich (2012). Do tuition fees affect the mobility of university applicants? Evidence from a natural experiment. Economics of Education Review 31 (1): 155–167.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fairlie, Robert W., Dean Karlan und Jonathan Zinman (2012). Behind the GATE Experiment: Evidence on Effects of and Rationales for Subsidized Entrepreneurship Training. NBER Working Paper 17804. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Re-search.Google Scholar

  • Falck, Oliver, Stephan Heblich und Stefan Kipar (2010). Industrial innovation: Direct evidence from a cluster-oriented policy. Regional Science and Urban Economics 40 (6): 574–582.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Felbermayr, Gabriel J. und Erdal Yalcin (2013). Export credit guarantees and export performance: An empirical analysis for Germany. The World Economy 36 (8): 967–999.Google Scholar

  • Figlio, David N., Jonathan Guryan, Krzysztof Karbownik und Jeffrey Roth (2013). The effects of poor neonatal health on children’s cognitive development. NBER Working Paper 18846. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar

  • Finn, Jeremy D. und Charles M. Achilles (1990). Answers and questions about class size: A statewide experiment. American Educational Research Journal 27 (3): 557–577.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fredriksson, Peter, Björn Öckert und Hessel Oosterbeek (2013). Long-term effects of class size. Quarterly Journal of Economics 128 (1): 249–285.Google Scholar

  • Frings, Hanna (2013). The employment effect of industry-specific, collectively bargained minimum wages. German Economic Review 14 (3): 258–281.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Frölich, Markus und Michael Lechner (2010). Exploiting regional treatment intensity for the evaluation of labor market policies. Journal of the American Statistical Association 105 (491): 1014–1029.Google Scholar

  • Fryer, Roland G. (2011). Financial incentives and student achievement: Evidence from randomized trials. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (4): 1755–1798.Google Scholar

  • Fryer, Roland G., Jr., Steven D. Levitt, John List und Sally Sadoff (2012). Enhancing the efficacy of teacher incentives through loss aversion: A field experiment. NBER Working Paper 18237. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar

  • Garces, Eliana, Duncan Thomas und Janet Currie (2002). Longer-term effects of Head Start. American Economic Review 92 (4): 999–1012.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Garibaldi, Pietro, Francesco Giavazzi, Andrea Ichino und Enrico Rettore (2012). College cost and time to complete a degree: Evidence from tuition discontinuities. Review of Economics and Statistics 94: 699–711.Google Scholar

  • Gathmann, Christina und Björn Sass (2012). Taxing childcare: Effects on family labor supply and children. CESifo Working Paper 3776. Munich: CESifo.Google Scholar

  • Gorter, Cees und Guyonne R. J. Kalb (1996). Estimating the effect of counseling and monitoring the unemployed using a job search model. Journal of Human Resources 31 (3): 590–610.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Graversen, Brian K. und Jan van Ours (2008). How to help unemployed find jobs quickly: Experimental evidence from a mandatory activation program. Journal of Public Economics 92 (10–11): 2020–2035.Google Scholar

  • Graversen, Brian K. und Jan van Ours (2011). An activation program as a stick to job finding. LABOUR 25 (2): 167–181.Google Scholar

  • Hægeland, Torbjørn, Oddbjørn Raaum und Kjell G. Salvanes (2012). Pennies from heaven? Using exogenous tax variation to identify effects of school resources on pupil achievement. Economics of Education Review 31 (5): 601–614.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hägglund, Pathric (2009). Experimental evidence from intensified placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden. IFAU Working Paper 2009:16. Uppsala: IFAU – Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation.Google Scholar

  • Hahn, Jinyong, Petra Todd und Wilbert Van der Klaauw (2001). Identification and estimation of treatment effects with a regression-discontinuity design. Econometrica 69 (1): 201–209.Google Scholar

  • Hanushek, Eric A., Susanne Link und Ludger Wößmann (2013). Does school autonomy make sense everywhere? Panel estimates from PISA. Journal of Development Economics 104: 212–232.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hanushek, Eric A. und Steven G. Rivkin (2012). The distribution of teacher quality and implications for policy. Annual Review of Economics 4: 7.1–7.27.Google Scholar

  • Hanushek, Eric A. und Ludger Wößmann (2006). Does educational tracking affect performance and inequality? Differences-in-differences evidence across countries. Economic Journal 116 (510): C63-C76.Google Scholar

  • Hanushek, Eric A., Ludger Wößmann und Lei Zhang (2011). General education, vocational education, and labor-market outcomes over the life-cycle. NBER Working Paper 17504. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research (October).Google Scholar

  • Harmon, Colm und Ian Walker (1995). Estimates of the economic return to schooling for the United Kingdom. American Economic Review 85 (5): 1278–1286.Google Scholar

  • Harrison, Glenn W. und John A. List (2004). Field experiments. Journal of Economic Literature 42 (4): 1009–1055.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Haynes, Laura, Owain Service, Ben Goldacre und David Torgerson (2012). Test, learn, adapt: Developing public policy with randomised controlled trials. London: Cabinet Office Behavioural Insights Team.Google Scholar

  • Heckman, James J. (2010). Building bridges between structural and program evaluation approaches to evaluating policy. Journal of Economic Literature 48 (2): 356–398.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Heckman, James J., Seong Hyeok Moon, Rodrigo Pinto, Peter Savelyev und Adam Yavitz (2010). Analyzing social experiments as implemented: A reexamination of the evidence from the HighScope Perry Preschool Program. Journal of Quantitative Economics 1 (1): 1–46.Google Scholar

  • Holland, Paul W. (1986). Statistics and causal inference. Journal of the American Statistical Association 81 (396): 945–960.Google Scholar

  • Hoxby, Caroline Minter (2000). The effects of class size on student achievement: New evidence from population variation. Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 (3): 1239–1285.Google Scholar

  • Hübner, Malte (2012). Do tuition fees affect enrollment behavior? Evidence from a ‘natural experiment’ in Germany. Economics of Education Review 31 (6): 949–960.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ichino, Andrea und Regina T. Riphahn (2005). The effect of employment protection on worker effort: Absenteeism during and after probation. Journal of the European Economic Association 3 (1): 120–143.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Imbens, Guido W. (2010). Better LATE than nothing: Some comments on Deaton (2009) and Heckman and Urzua (2009). Journal of Economic Literature 48 (2): 399–423.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Imbens, Guido W. und Karthik Kalyanaraman (2012). Optimal bandwidth choice for the regression eiscontinuity estimator. Review of Economic Studies 79 (3): 933–959.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Imbens, Guido W. und Thomas Lemieux (2008). Regression discontinuity designs: A guide to practice. Journal of Econometrics 142 (2): 615–635.Google Scholar

  • Imbens, Guido W. und Jeffrey M. Wooldridge (2009). Recent developments in the econometrics of program evaluation. Journal of Economic Literature 47 (1): 5–86.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jürges, Hendrik, Kerstin Schneider und Felix Büchel (2005). The effect of central exit examinations on student achievement: Quasi-experimental evidence from TIMSS Germany. Journal of the European Economic Association 3 (5): 1134–1155.Google Scholar

  • Kemptner, Daniel, Hendrik Jürges und Steffen Reinhold (2011). Changes in compulsory schooling and the causal effect of education on health: Evidence from Germany. Journal of Health Economics 30 (2): 340–354.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kirchgässner, Gebhard (2013). Zur Rolle der Ökonometrie in der wissenschaftlichen Politikberatung. Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik 14 (1–2): 3–30.Google Scholar

  • Klepinger, Daniel H., Terry R. Johnson und Jutta. M. Joesch (2002). Impacts of unemployment insurance work-search requirements: The Maryland experience. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56 (1): 3–22.Google Scholar

  • Kling, Jeffrey R., Jeffrey B. Liebman und Lawrence F. Katz (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica 75 (1): 83–119.Google Scholar

  • König, Marion und Joachim Möller (2009). Impacts of minimum wages: A micro data analysis for the German construction sector. International Journal of Manpower 30 (7): 716–741.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Krueger, Alan B. (1999). Experimental estimates of education production functions. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 (2): 497–532.Google Scholar

  • Krueger, Alan B. und Pei Zhu (2004). Another look at the New York City school voucher experiment. American Behavioral Scientist 47 (5): 658–698.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lalive, Rafael (2008). How do extended benefits affect unemployment duration? A regression discontinuity approach. Journal of Econometrics 142 (2): 785–806.Google Scholar

  • Lalive, Rafael und Josef Zweimüller (2004). Benefit entitlement and unemployment duration: The role of policy endogeneity. Journal of Public Economics 88 (12): 2587–2616.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lavy, Victor (2010). Effects of free choice among public schools. Review of Economic Studies 77 (3): 1164–1191.Google Scholar

  • Lechner, Michael, Ruth Miquel und Conny Wunsch (2011). Long-run effects of public sector sponsored training in West Germany. Journal of the European Economic Association 9 (4): 742–784.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lee, David S. und Thomas Lemieux (2010). Regression discontinuity designs in economics. Journal of Economic Literature 48 (2): 281–355.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Leuven, Edwin, Mikael Lindahl, Hessel Oosterbeek und Dinand Webbink (2007). The effect of extra funding for disadvantaged pupils on achievement. Review of Economics and Statistics 89 (4): 721–736.Google Scholar

  • Leuven, Edwin, Hessel Oosterbeek und Bas van der Klaauw (2010). The effect of financial rewards on students’ achievement: Evidence from a randomized experiment. Journal of the European Economic Association 8 (6): 1243–1265.Google Scholar

  • Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Susanne Neckermann und Sally Sadoff (2012). The behavioralist goes to school: Leveraging behavioral economics to improve educational performance. NBER Working Paper 18165. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar

  • List, John A. (2011). Why economists should conduct field experiments and 14 tips for pulling one off. Journal of Economic Perspectives 25 (3): 3–16.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • List, John A. und Imran Rasul (2011). Field experiments in labor economics. In Handbook of Labor Economics, hrsg. von Ashenfelter Orley und Card David: Elsevier: 103–228.Google Scholar

  • Lleras-Muney, Adriana (2005). The relationship between education and adult mortality in the United States. Review of Economic Studies 72 (1): 189–221.Google Scholar

  • Lochner, Lance und Enrico Moretti (2004). The effect of education on crime: Evidence from prison inmates, arrests, and self-reports. American Economic Review 94 (1): 155–189.Google Scholar

  • Ludwig, Jens, Greg J. Duncan, Lisa A. Gennetian, Lawrence F. Katz, Ronald C. Kessler, Jeffrey R. Kling und Lisa Sanbonmatsu (2013). Long-term neighborhood effects on low-income families: Evidence from Moving to Opportunity. American Economic Review 103 (3): 226–231.Google Scholar

  • Ludwig, Jens, Jeffrey R. Kling und Sendhil Mullainathan (2011). Mechanism experiments and policy evaluations. Journal of Economic Perspectives 25 (3): 17–38.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Manski, Charles F. (1995). Identification problems in the social sciences. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

  • McCrary, Justin (2008). Manipulation of the running variable in the regression discontinuity design: A density test. Journal of Econometrics 142 (2): 698–714.Google Scholar

  • McCrary, Justin und Heather Royer (2011). The effect of female education on fertility and infant health: Evidence from school entry policies using exact date of birth. American Economic Review 101 (1): 158–195.Google Scholar

  • Meghir, Costas und Mårten Palme (2005). Educational reform, ability, and family background. American Economic Review 95 (1): 414–423.Google Scholar

  • Metzler, Johannes und Ludger Wößmann (2012). The impact of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement: Evidence from within-teacher within-student variation. Journal of Development Economics 99 (2): 486–496.Google Scholar

  • Mühlenweg, Andrea. M. und Patrick A. Puhani (2010). The evolution of the school-entry age effect in a school tracking system. Journal of Human Resources 45 (2): 407–438.Google Scholar

  • Muralidharan, Karthik und Venkatesh Sundararaman (2011). Teacher performance pay: Experimental evidence from India. Journal of Political Economy 119 (1): 39–77.Google Scholar

  • Oreopoulos, Philip (2006). Estimating average and local average treatment effects of education when compulsory schooling laws really matter. American Economic Review 96 (1): 152–175.Google Scholar

  • Parey, Matthias und Fabian Waldinger (2011). Studying abroad and the effect on international labour market mobility: Evidence from the introduction of ERASMUS. Economic Journal 121 (551): 194–222.Google Scholar

  • Pekkala Kerr, Sari, Tuomas Pekkarinen und Roope Uusitalo (2013). School tracking and development of cognitive skills. Journal of Labor Economics 31 (3): 577–602.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pellegrini, Guido, Flavia Terribile, Ornella Tarola, Teo Muccigrosso und Federica Busillo (2013). Measuring the effects of European Regional Policy on economic growth: A regression discontinuity approach. Papers in Regional Science 92 (1): 217–233.Google Scholar

  • Peterson, Paul E. und William G. Howell (2004). Efficiency, bias, and classification schemes: A response to Alan B. Krueger and Pei Zhu. American Behavioral Scientist 47 (5): 699–717.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Peterson, Paul E., William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf und David E. Campbell (2003). School vouchers: Results from randomized experiments. In The Economics of School Choice, hrsg. von Caroline M. Hoxby. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press: 107–144.Google Scholar

  • Piopiunik, Marc (2013). The effects of early tracking on student performance: Evidence from a school reform in Bavaria. Ifo Working Paper 153. Munich: Ifo Institute.Google Scholar

  • Piopiunik, Marc (2014). Intergenerational transmission of education and mediating channels: Evidence from a compulsory schooling reform in Germany. Scandinavian Journal of Economics: forthcoming.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Präsident des Bundesrechnungshofes, Hrsg. (2013). Anforderungen an Wirtschaftlichkeitsuntersuchungen finanzwirksamer Maßnahmen nach § 7 Bundeshaushaltsordnung. Schriftenreihe des Bundesbeauftragten für Wirtschaftlichkeit in der Verwaltung, Band 18. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.Google Scholar

  • Reinhold, Steffen und Hendrik Jürges (2010). Secondary school fees and the causal effect of schooling on health behavior. Health Economics 19 (8): 994–1001.Google Scholar

  • Riphahn, Regina T. (2012). Effect of secondary school fees on educational attainment. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 114 (1): 148–176.Google Scholar

  • Rivkin, Steven G., Eric A. Hanushek und John F. Kain (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica 73 (2): 417–458.Google Scholar

  • Rockoff, Jonah E. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Economic Review 94 (2): 247–252.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rockoff, Jonah E., Douglas O. Staiger, Thomas J. Kane und Eric S. Taylor (2012). Information and employee evaluation: Evidence from a randomized intervention in public schools. American Economic Review 102 (7): 3184–3213.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rosendahl Huber, Laura, Randolph Sloof und Mirjam Van Praag (2012). The effect of early entrepreneurship education: Evidence from a randomized field experiment. IZA Discussion Paper 6512. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.Google Scholar

  • Rubin, Donald B. (1974). Estimating the causal effects of treatments in randomized and non-randomized studies. Journal of Educational Psychology 66 (5): 688–701.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rubin, Donald B. (1977). Assignment to a treatment group on the basis of a covariate. Journal of Educational Statistics 2 (1): 1–26.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sacerdote, Bruce (2001). Peer effects with random assignment: Results for Dartmouth roommates. Quarterly Journal of Economics 116 (2): 681–704.Google Scholar

  • Schlotter, Martin (2011). The effect of preschool attendance on secondary school track choice in Germany: Evidence from siblings. ifo Working Paper 106. Munich: ifo Institute.Google Scholar

  • Schlotter, Martin, Guido Schwerdt und Ludger Wößmann (2011). Econometric methods for causal evaluation of education policies and practices: a non-technical guide. Education Economics 19 (2): 109–137.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Schmidt, Christoph M. (2009). Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Politikberatung in Deutschland – Bedeutung, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Kausalanalyse. In Wirtschaftspolitik im Zeichen europäischer Integration: Festschrift für Wim Kösters anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstages, hrsg. von Ansgar Belke, Hans-Helmut Kotz, Stephan Paul und Christoph M. Schmidt. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.Google Scholar

  • Schmieder, Johannes F., Till von Wachter und Stefan Bender (2012). The effects of extended unemployment insurance over the business cycle: Evidence from regression discontinuity estimates over 20 years. Quarterly Journal of Economics 127 (2): 701–752.Google Scholar

  • Schreyögg, Jonas und Markus Grabka (2010). Copayments for ambulatory care in Germany: a natural experiment using a difference-in-difference approach. The European Journal of Health Economics 11 (3): 331–341.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Schwerdt, Guido, Dolores Messer, Ludger Wößmann und Stefan C. Wolter (2012). The impact of an adult education voucher program: Evidence from a randomized field experiment. Journal of Public Economics 96 (7–8): 569–583.Google Scholar

  • Schwerdt, Guido und Martin R. West (2013). The effects of test-based retention on student outcomes over time: Regression discontinuity evidence from Florida. PEPG Working Papers Series 12–09. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance.Google Scholar

  • Schwerdt, Guido und Ludger Wößmann (2014). The information value of central school exams. CESifo Working Paper, forthcoming. Munich: CESifo.Google Scholar

  • Schwerdt, Guido und Amelie C. Wuppermann (2011). Is traditional teaching really all that bad? A within-student between-subject approach. Economics of Education Review 30 (2): 365–379.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stenberg, Anders, Xavier de Luna und Olle Westerlund (2012). Can adult education delay retirement from the labour market? Journal of Population Economics 25 (2): 677–696.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stock, James H. und Mark W. Watson (2011). Introduction to econometrics. 3 ed. United States: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar

  • van den Berg, Gerard J. und Bas van der Klaauw (2006). Counseling and monitoring of unemployed workers: Theory and evidence from a controlled social experiment. International Economic Review 47 (3): 895–936.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • West, Martin R. und Ludger Wößmann (2010). ‘Every Catholic child in a Catholic school’: Historical resistance to state schooling, contemporary private competition and student achievement across countries. Economic Journal 120 (546): F229–F255.Google Scholar

  • Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf (2003). Benefit duration and unemployment entry: A quasi-experiment in Austria. European Economic Review 47 (2): 259–273.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wissenschaftlicher Beirat beim Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (2013). Evaluierung wirtschaftspolitischer Fördermaßnahmen als Element einer evidenzbasierten Wirtschaftspolitik. Berlin: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie. http://www.bmwi.de/BMWi/Redaktion/PDF/Publikationen/Studien/wissenschaftlicher-beirat-evaluierung-wirtschaftspolitischer-foerderma_C3_9Fnahmen,property=pdf,bereich=bmwi2012,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf (13.4.2014).

  • Wößmann, Ludger (2005). Educational production in Europe. Economic Policy 20 (43): 446–504.Google Scholar

  • Wößmann, Ludger und Martin R. West (2006). Class-size effects in school systems around the world: Evidence from between-grade variation in TIMSS. European Economic Review 50 (3): 695–736.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Yörük, Baris K. und Ceren Ertan Yörük (2011). The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: Evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth. Journal of Health Economics 30 (4): 740–752.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zimmerman, David J. (2003). Peer effects in academic outcomes: Evidence from a natural experiment. Review of Economics and Statistics 85 (1): 9–23.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2014-06-04

Published in Print: 2014-06-01


Citation Information: Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 105–132, ISSN (Online) 1468-2516, ISSN (Print) 1465-6493, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pwp-2014-0013.

Export Citation

© 2014 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Wolfgang Habla, Vera Huwe, and Martin Kesternich
Wirtschaftsdienst, 2019, Volume 99, Number 5, Page 330
[2]
Gebhard Kirchgässner
Schmollers Jahrbuch, 2015, Volume 135, Number 2, Page 209

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in