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Radiochimica Acta

International Journal for chemical aspects of nuclear science and technology

Editor-in-Chief: Qaim, Syed M.


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.339

CiteScore 2018: 1.20

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.333
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.720

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2193-3405
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Volume 107, Issue 7

Issues

From SRAFAP to ARCA and AIDA – developments and implementation of automated aqueous-phase rapid chemistry apparatuses for heavy actinides and transactinides

Matthias Schädel / Yuichiro Nagame
  • Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2019-04-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ract-2019-3103

Abstract

The development of automated rapid chemistry techniques and their application for batch-wise, chromatographic separations of heavy elements in the liquid-phase are outlined. Starting in the mid-1970s with manually performed separations using pressurized liquid-chromatography techniques, this development led to the first version of the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus, ARCA, in the early 1980s. After a breakthrough to a much higher level of automation and miniaturization, the new apparatus ARCA II was built in the late 1980s. Based on it, the Automated Ion-exchange separation apparatus coupled with the Detection system for Alpha spectroscopy, AIDA, became operational in the late 1990s. In the context of technical and technological advancements, this article discusses the successful application of these instruments for (i) the search for superheavy elements, (ii) cross section measurements of actinide elements produced in multi-nucleon transfer reactions with actinide targets, (iii) chemical separation and characterization of the heavy actinides mendelevium, Md, and lawrencium, Lr, and (iv) studies of the transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf, dubnium, Db, and seaborgium, Sg. Details of the separations are outlined together with the big advancements made over time and the limitations reached. For the transactinide elements, examples are given for their observed chemical behavior; often affected by an interplay between hydrolysis and complex formation. Influenced by relativistic effects, chemical properties of these elements sometimes deviated from those of their lighter homologs in the Periodic Table.

Keywords: Aqueous-phase automated rapid chemical separations; liquid chromatography; ARCA; ARCA II; AIDA; actinide transfer products; lawrencium; Lr; rutherfordium; Rf; dubnium; Db; seaborgium; Sg; transactinide chemistry; superheavy elements; relativistic effects

Dedicated to: The memory of Professor Günter Herrmann.

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About the article

Received: 2019-01-10

Accepted: 2019-03-11

Published Online: 2019-04-11

Published in Print: 2019-07-26


Citation Information: Radiochimica Acta, Volume 107, Issue 7, Pages 561–585, ISSN (Online) 2193-3405, ISSN (Print) 0033-8230, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ract-2019-3103.

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Christoph E. Düllmann
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