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Restaurator. International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material

Editor-in-Chief: Eyb-Green, Sigrid / Henniges, Ute


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Volume 40, Issue 1

Issues

Comparing Non-destructive Mechanical Testing Methods for the Assessment of Brittle Papers – The Cantilever, Hanging Pear Loop, and Clamped Fold Tests

Andrea K. I. Hall
  • Heritage Science for Conservation, Department of Conservation and Preservation/ Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Brody Learning Commons 5031, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD, USA 21218
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Raymond H. Plaut / Patricia M. McGuiggan
  • Corresponding author
  • Heritage Science for Conservation, Department of Conservation and Preservation/ Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Brody Learning Commons 5031, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD, USA 21218
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  • Other articles by this author:
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Published Online: 2019-03-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/res-2018-0015

Abstract

The ability to determine the condition of paper (e.g. its brittleness) and its permanence is a need in libraries and archives. This study investigates various bend tests and applies these tests to aged paper with the goal of finding easy, non-destructive tests to determine the mechanical properties of paper. The cantilever test was previously shown to accurately assess mechanical properties of paper-based materials, such as elastic and bending moduli as well as the bending length. This work investigates the hanging pear loop and clamped fold tests and compares the results with those found with the cantilever test. The results show that the strain and curvature induced by the two tests are much larger than those experienced in the cantilever test. This large strain and curvature induce plastic behaviour and make the hanging pear loop and clamped fold tests inappropriate for use on paper-based materials.

Zusammenfassung

Ein Vergleich verschiedener nicht-destruktiver mechanischer Testmethoden für brüchiges Papier: Cantilever, Hanging Pear Loop, and Clamped Fold Tests

Für Archive und Bibliotheken ist es wichtig, den Zustand von Papier – vor allem seine Brüchigkeit und Beständigkeit – möglichst genau einschätzen zu können. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden unterschiedliche Biegeprüfungen untersucht und auf verschiedene Papiere angewendet, um einfache, nicht-destruktive Testmethoden für die Eigenschaften von Papier zu finden. In der Vergangenheit konnte gezeigt werden, dass mit dem Cantilever Test genaue Daten zu mechanischen Eigenschaften wie dem Elastizitätsmodul und der Biegebruchtfestigkeit sowie Biegelänge von Papieren gewonnen werden können. Ergebnisse des Hanging Pear Loop und Clamp Fold Tests wurden mit jenen des Cantilever Tests verglichen. Zugfestigkeit und Biegefestigkeit, die mit diesen Tests gemessen wurden, sind größer als jene, die mit dem Cantilever Test erreicht werden. Hoher Zug und große Krümmung verursachen plastische Verformungen, die Hanging Pear Loop und Clamp Fold Tests ungeeignet machen, um die Eigenschaften von Papier zu erfassen.

Résummé

Comparaison de méthodes de tests mécaniques non destructives pour évaluer le degré de fragilité de papiers – les tests Cantilever, de cercle accroché en forme de poire et du pli bloqué

La capacité de déterminer la condition du papier (par exemple sa fragilité) et sa permanence est un besoin pour les archives et bibliothèques. Cette étude se penche sur différents tests de résistance à la pliure et applique ces tests à un papier vieilli afin de définir des tests faciles, non destructifs pour déterminer les propriétés mécaniques du papier. Il a été démontré précédement que le test Cantilever permet d’évaluer de manière précise les propriétés mécaniques des matériaux à base de papier, telles que l’élasticité et la résistance à l’élongation ainsi que la longueur d’étirement. Dans cette étude, nous étudions les tests de cercle accroché en forme de poire et du pli bloqué et nous comparons les résultats avec ceux du test Cantilever. Les résultats montrent que l’élongation et le degré de courbure induites par ces deux tests sont beaucoup plus prononcés qu’avec le test Cantilever. Cette élongation et ce degré de courbure importants induisent un comportement plastique et de ce fait rendent ces deux tests inadaptés pour des matériaux à base de papier.

Keywords: cellulose; mechanical properties; cultural heritage; aged paper

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About the article

Andrea K. I. Hall

Andrea Hall is a Senior Research Specialist at Heritage Science for Conservation in the Department of Conservation and Preservation at Johns Hopkins University. Hall has a background as a conservation specialist and a materials scientist. She received her Masters of Science in Engineering from Johns Hopkins University in 2016, her Bachelor of Science in biology at Bowling Green State University, and studied the conservation of art and artifacts at Studio Arts College International in Florence, Italy.

Raymond H. Plaut

Dr. Raymond H. Plaut received his B.S. from Caltech, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Applied Mechanics from the University of California at Berkeley. He was a faculty member for one year at the University of Nottingham, seven years at Brown University, and 33 years at Virginia Tech including a one-year sabbatical at the Technical University of Denmark. Since retiring in 2008 he has been a full-time voluntary teacher’s aide, for three years at Head Start pre-school and since then in a kindergarten class.

Patricia M. McGuiggan

Patricia McGuiggan obtained her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Minnesota. During her Ph.D., she was a research scholar in the Applied Mathematics Department at the Australian National University working with Richard Pashley. She spent 3 years as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Santa Barbara with Professor Jacob Israelachvili. She has worked at 3 M, W.L. Gore & Associates, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. She is currently an associate research professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University and is P.I. of the Heritage Science for Conservation Program in the Department of Conservation and Preservation at JHU.


Received: 2018-10-12

Accepted: 2019-02-06

Revised: 2019-01-19

Published Online: 2019-03-31

Published in Print: 2019-03-26


Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, (Grant/Award Number: ‘Renewed support for Heritage Science for Conservation’).


Citation Information: Restaurator. International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 15–34, ISSN (Online) 1865-8431, ISSN (Print) 0034-5806, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/res-2018-0015.

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