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Reviews on Environmental Health

Editor-in-Chief: Carpenter, David O. / Sly, Peter

Editorial Board: Brugge, Doug / Edwards, John W. / Field, R.William / Garbisu, Carlos / Hales, Simon / Horowitz, Michal / Lawrence, Roderick / Maibach, H.I. / Shaw, Susan / Tao, Shu / Tchounwou, Paul B.


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2191-0308
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Volume 29, Issue 4

Issues

Dietary inclusion of local salt substitutes induces oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats

Ayodele J. Akinyemi
  • Corresponding author
  • Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
  • Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
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/ Ganiyu Oboh
  • Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
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/ Adedayo O. Ademiluyi
  • Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
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/ Obafemi O. Araoye
  • Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
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/ Sunday I. Oyeleye
  • Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
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Published Online: 2014-05-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2014-0038

Abstract

Our earlier report has shown that salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo) contain some toxic heavy metals. This study, therefore, investigated the effect of the dietary inclusion of salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo), namely, salt “A” and “B”, on biomarkers of oxidative stress and renal function in rats. Salt “A”, which has a gray color, is the product of a process in which ash is produced by burning palm kernel shaft soaked in water overnight and extracting the residue to produce the salt substitute while Salt “B”, which has a white color, is a rock salt mined from a local site at Ilobu town, Osun-State, Nigeria. Salt substitutes were fed to normal rats as dietary inclusion at 0.5% and 1.0% for 21 days. The dietary inclusion of the salt substitutes caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in plasma activities of creatinine, urea, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen compared with the control. Meanwhile, the dietary inclusion of the salt substitutes caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in renal superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione level, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities with a concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde level compared with the control. Furthermore, there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the concentrations of heavy metals, such as Pb, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn and Cr, in kidney of rats fed with the salt substitute Obu-Otoyo. Therefore, this finding indicates that Obu-Otoyo induces nephrotoxicity in rats. The nephrotoxicity of Obu-Otoyo could be attributed to the induction of oxidative stress as a result of the presence of some heavy metals, suggesting possible health hazards in subjects who consume it.

Keywords: heavy metals; malondialdehyde; nephrotoxicity; Obu-Otoyo; salt substitute

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About the article

Corresponding author: Ayodele J. Akinyemi, Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, P.M.B. 704, Akure, 340001, Nigeria, Phone: +2348035866170, Fax: +2347098721306, e-mail: Ayodele J. Akinyemi: Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria


Received: 2014-02-05

Accepted: 2014-04-15

Published Online: 2014-05-15

Published in Print: 2014-12-06


Citation Information: Reviews on Environmental Health, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 355–361, ISSN (Online) 2191-0308, ISSN (Print) 0048-7554, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2014-0038.

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