Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Reviews on Environmental Health

Editor-in-Chief: Carpenter, David O. / Sly, Peter

Editorial Board Member: Brugge, Doug / Edwards, John W. / Field, R.William / Garbisu, Carlos / Hales, Simon / Horowitz, Michal / Lawrence, Roderick / Maibach, H.I. / Shaw, Susan / Tao, Shu / Tchounwou, Paul B.

4 Issues per year


CiteScore 2016: 1.95

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.543
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.885

Online
ISSN
2191-0308
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 30, Issue 1 (Mar 2015)

Issues

Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds—two commonly used water purifying agents

Sandhya Vincent Neelamkavil
  • Corresponding author
  • Research Scholar, Cell and Molecular Biology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala, India
  • Email:
/ John E. Thoppil
  • Cell and Molecular Biology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala, India
Published Online: 2014-11-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2014-0066

Abstract

The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water.

Keywords: binucleate; calcium hypochlorite; chromosome aberrations; lesions; micronucleus

References

  • 1.

    Ruby V, Moideen MM, Suhail MJM, Dhanapal CK. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Strychnos potatorum. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2011;2:521–9.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Thomas J. Medicinal and aromatic plants research in India. In: UNDP. Proceedings of Training course on industrial exploitation of indigenous medicinal and aromatic plants. Beijing, China, 1997:17–27.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Mallikharjuna PB, Rajanna LN, Seetharam YN, Sharanabasappa GK. Phytochemical studies of Strychnos potatorum L.f.— A medicinal plant. E-J Chem 2007;4:510–8.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Sarawgi G, Kamra A, Suri N, Kaur A, Sarethy IP. Effect of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extracts on water samples from different sources and with diverse properties. Asian J Water Environ Pollut 2009;6:13–27.Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Grant WF. Chromosome aberrations in plant as a monitoring system. Environ Health Perspect 1978;27:37–43.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    Grant WF. The present status of higher plant bioassay for the detection of environmental mutagens. Mutat Res 1994;310:175–85.Google Scholar

  • 7.

    WHO. Guide to short term tests for detecting mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. Environ Health Criteria 1985;51:208 (Geneva).Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Rank J, Nielsen MH. Evaluation of Allium anaphase-telophase test in relation to genotoxicity screening of industrial wastewater. Mutat Res 1994;312:17–27.Google Scholar

  • 9.

    Leme DM, Marin-Morales MA. Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: a review on its application. Mutat Res 2009;682:71–81.Google Scholar

  • 10.

    Sharma AK, Sharma A. Chromosome techniques – theory and practice, 3rd ed. London: Butterworths Ltd., 1990.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Sreeranjini S, Siril EA. Evaluation of anti-genotoxicity of the leaf extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn. Plant Soil Environ 2011;57:222–7.Google Scholar

  • 12.

    Kuraś M, Nowakowska J, Śliwinśka E, Pilarski R, Ilasz R, et al. Changes in chromosome structure, mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content from cells of Allium test induced by bark water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:211–21.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Mercykutty VC, Stephen J. Adriamycin induced genetic toxicity as demonstrated by Allium test. Cytologia 1980;45: 769–77.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Leme DM, de Angelis DdeF, Marin-Morales MA. Action mechanisms of petroleum hydrocarbons present in waters impacted by an oil spill on the genetic material of Allium cepa root cells. Aquat Toxicol 2008;88:214–9.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    Fernandes TCC, Mazzeo DEC, Marin-Morales MA. Mechanism of micronuclei formation in polyploidizated cells of Allium cepa exposed to trifluralin herbicide. Pestic Biochem Phys 2007;88:252–9.Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Patil BC, Bhat GI. A comparative study on MH and EMS in the induction of chromosome aberration on root meristem of Clitoria ternata L. Cytologia 1992;57:259–64.Google Scholar

  • 17.

    Ateeq B, Abul Farah M, Niamat Ali M, Ahmad W. Clastogenicity of pentachlorophenol, 2,4-D and butachlor evaluated by Allium root tip test. Mutat Res 2002;514:105–13.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Asada T, Collings D. Molecular motors in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci 1997;2:29–37.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19.

    Baluska F, Volkmann D, Barlow PW. Nuclear components with microtubule-organizing properties in multicellular eukaryotes: functional and evolutionary considerations. Int Rev Cytol 1997;175:91–135.Google Scholar

  • 20.

    Cyr RJ, Palevitz BA. Organisation of cortical microtubules in plant cells. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1995;7:65–71.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21.

    El-Ghamery AA, El-Nahas AI, Mansour MM. The action of atrazine herbicide as an indicator of cell division on chromosomes and nucleic acid content in root meristems of Allium cepa and Vicia faba. Cytologia 2000;65:277–87.Google Scholar

  • 22.

    Tkalec M, Malaric K, Pavlica M, Pevalek-Kozlina B, Vidakovic-Cifrek Z. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on seed germination and root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2009;672:76–81.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 23.

    Somashekar RK, Gowda MTG. Effects of fungicide vitavax on Allium cepa. Cytologia 1984;49:177–81.Google Scholar

  • 24.

    Selim AR, Hussein MM, Allam HZ, Farah AR. The effect of three synthetic organic insecticides (nuvacron, cyolan and kelthane/dimethoate) on the cytological features and morphological characters in cotton Gossypium barbadense 1. Bull Fac Agric Cairo Univ 1981;32:52–66.Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Minija J, Tajo A, Thoppil JE. Mitoclastic properties of Mentha rotundifolia L. J Cytol Genet 1999;34:169–71.Google Scholar

  • 26.

    Saggoo MIS, Kumari S, Bindu R. Cytological effects of Indian medicinal plants. I. Mitotic effects of leaf homogenate of Tylophora indica L. on Allium cepa. Cytologia 1991;56:633–7.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Tran TA, Popova LP. Functions and toxicity of cadmium in plants: recent advances and future prospects. Turk J Bot 2013;37:1–13.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 28.

    Vicentini VEP, Camparoto ML, Teixeira RO, Mantovani MS. Averrhoa carambola L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels and Cissus sicyoides L.: medicinal herbal tea effects on vegetal and test systems. Acta Sci 2001;23:593–98.Google Scholar

  • 29.

    Yadav KN, Kadam PV, Patel JA, Patil MJ. Strychnos potatorum: phytochemical and pharmacological review. Pharmacogn Rev 2014;8:61–6.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Sandhya Vincent Neelamkavil, Research Scholar, Cell and Molecular Biology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala, India, PIN: 673635, E-mail:


Received: 2014-08-22

Accepted: 2014-10-17

Published Online: 2014-11-20

Published in Print: 2015-03-01


Citation Information: Reviews on Environmental Health, ISSN (Online) 2191-0308, ISSN (Print) 0048-7554, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2014-0066.

Export Citation

©2015 by De Gruyter. Copyright Clearance Center

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in