Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Reviews on Environmental Health

Editor-in-Chief: Carpenter, David O. / Sly, Peter

Editorial Board: Brugge, Doug / Edwards, John W. / Field, R.William / Garbisu, Carlos / Hales, Simon / Horowitz, Michal / Lawrence, Roderick / Maibach, H.I. / Shaw, Susan / Tao, Shu / Tchounwou, Paul B.

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.616

CiteScore 2018: 1.69

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.508
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.664

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 31, Issue 1


Lead exposure from battery recycling in Indonesia

Budi Haryanto
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok City, Indonesia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-01-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2015-0036


In Indonesia, more than 200 illegal used lead acid battery (ULAB) smelters are currently operating. Only a few health studies support the finding of lead-related symptoms and diseases among populations living near the smelters. To assess the blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential health impacts among the population surrounding ULAB recycling smelters, we evaluated health effects reported from 2003 to 2013, conducted focus group discussions with lead smelter owner/workers and a group of 35 female partners of smelter owners or workers not actively engaged in smelter work, and retook and measured BLLs. It was found that many children in the areas were having difficulty achieving high grades at school and having stunting or other problems with physical development. The average mean of BLLs increased by almost double in 2015, compared with in 2011. The risk of having hypertension, interference in the ability to make red blood cells in females occurred among 24% of respondents; Elevated blood pressure, hearing loss, and interference in the ability to make red bloods cell occurred in 20% of males; Kidney damage, infertility in male, nerve problems, including decreased sensation and decreased ability to move quickly occurred in 13%; Decreased ability to make red blood cells (20%), and; Frank anemia, decreased life-span, coma/seizures were experienced by 22%. The populations living in areas surrounding ULAB smelters are experiencing severe chronic health problems. It is recommended that the smelters must be moved and placed far away from the municipality.

Keywords: blood lead levels; human health effects; used lead acid battery smelters


  • 1.

    Office of Industry of Tegal Regency. Yearly Report of Industry in Tegal Regency, 2012.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Pruss-Ustun A, Bonjour S, Corvalan C. The impact of the environment on health by country: a meta-synthesis. Environ Health 2008;25:7.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Mer-C Assessment report on health effects caused by lead smelters exposure in Pesarean Tegal, 2011.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Fewtrell L, Kaufmann R, Prüss-Üstün A. Lead: Assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 2. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2003.Google Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Budi Haryanto, Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok City, Indonesia, E-mail:

Received: 2015-10-11

Accepted: 2015-10-13

Published Online: 2016-01-20

Published in Print: 2016-03-01

Citation Information: Reviews on Environmental Health, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 13–16, ISSN (Online) 2191-0308, ISSN (Print) 0048-7554, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2015-0036.

Export Citation

©2016 by De Gruyter.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

MS Mani, SP Kabekkodu, MB Joshi, and HS Dsouza
Human & Experimental Toxicology, 2019, Volume 38, Number 9, Page 1031
Nurhayati A. Prihartono, Ratna Djuwita, Putri B. Mahmud, Budi Haryanto, Helda Helda, Tri Yunis Miko Wahyono, and Timothy Dignam
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019, Volume 16, Number 7, Page 1276
Bret Ericson, Nickolaus Hariojati, Budi Susilorini, Lara Fisher Crampe, Richard Fuller, Mark Patrick Taylor, and Jack Caravanos
Science of The Total Environment, 2019, Volume 657, Page 1382
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Marta Esteban López, Naveen Puttaswamy, and Tamar Berman
Environment International, 2018, Volume 116, Page 156
Mohammad A. BaSalamah, Abdelghany Hassan Abdelghany, Mohamed El-Boshy, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris, and Bassem Refaat
Scientific Reports, 2018, Volume 8, Number 1
Bret Ericson, Phillip Landrigan, Mark Patrick Taylor, Joseph Frostad, Jack Caravanos, John Keith, and Richard Fuller
Annals of Global Health, 2016, Volume 82, Number 5, Page 686

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in