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Reviews on Environmental Health

Editor-in-Chief: Carpenter, David O. / Sly, Peter

Editorial Board: Brugge, Doug / Edwards, John W. / Field, R.William / Garbisu, Carlos / Hales, Simon / Horowitz, Michal / Lawrence, Roderick / Maibach, H.I. / Shaw, Susan / Tao, Shu / Tchounwou, Paul B.

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.616

CiteScore 2018: 1.69

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.508
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.664

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Volume 31, Issue 1


Novel industrial wastewater treatment integrated with recovery of water and salt under a zero liquid discharge concept

Sengodagounder Rajamani
  • Corresponding author
  • EWCA Chennai Chapter and Chairman, Asian International Union of Environment (AIUE) Commission, Chennai-600 028, Tamil Nadu, India
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  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-03-16 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0006


Conventional industrial effluent treatment systems are designed to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) but not total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly contributed by chlorides. In addition to the removal of TDS, it is necessary to recover water for reuse to meet the challenges of shortage of quality water. To recover water, the wastewater needs to be further treated by adopting treatment systems including microfilters, low pressure membrane units such as ultrafiltration (UF), membrane bioreactors (MBR), etc., for the application of reverse osmosis (RO) systems. By adopting the RO system, 75%–80% of quality water with <500 mg/L of TDS is recovered from treated effluent. The management of 20%–25% of the saline water rejected from the RO system with high TDS concentration is being addressed by methods such as forced evaporation systems. The recovery of water from domestic and industrial waste for reuse has become a reality. The membrane system has been used for different applications. It has become mandatory to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in many states in India and other countries such as Spain, China, etc., and resulted in development of new treatment technologies to suit the local conditions.

Keywords: evaporation; quality water; reverse osmosis (RO) system; reuse; wastewater


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About the article

Corresponding author: Dr. Sengodagounder Rajamani, Secretary, EWCA Chennai Chapter and Chairman, Asian International Union of Environment (AIUE) Commission, Chennai-600 028, Tamil Nadu, India, Mobile: +91 9840063210, E-mail:

Received: 2016-02-16

Accepted: 2016-02-16

Published Online: 2016-03-16

Published in Print: 2016-03-01

Citation Information: Reviews on Environmental Health, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 63–66, ISSN (Online) 2191-0308, ISSN (Print) 0048-7554, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0006.

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