Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3–4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further.