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Reviews on Environmental Health

Editor-in-Chief: Carpenter, David O. / Sly, Peter

Editorial Board: Brugge, Doug / Edwards, John W. / Field, R.William / Garbisu, Carlos / Hales, Simon / Horowitz, Michal / Lawrence, Roderick / Maibach, H.I. / Shaw, Susan / Tao, Shu / Tchounwou, Paul B.

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Volume 31, Issue 4


Environmental and occupational exposure to cadmium in Iran: a systematic review

Leila Tavakkoli
  • Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Narges Khanjani
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Public Health, Kerman Medical University (KMU), Haft Bagh Alavi Highway, Kerman, Iran, Phone and Fax: 034-3132-0512
  • Associate Professor, Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-11-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0042



Cadmium (Cd) is one of the heavy metals that have negative effects on human health. In Iran, there is no policy to regularly measure Cd in the general population. However, some studies have been performed on special groups and in different cities of Iran. This paper has reviewed these studies and human contamination levels in Iran.

Method and materials:

All accessible electronic information resources such as Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, IranMedex, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and Science Direct were searched, with relevant phrases and their Persian translations. The search included all studies conducted in Iran and listed in the databases until March 15, 2016.


Eventually, 18 articles were selected from 25 retrieved articles. Cd was higher among industrial workers exposed to Cd. In the general population, Cd was higher among smokers and in people with environmental exposure from living in industrial areas.


Considering the high Cd contamination in the workers of industries, it seems to be necessary to do surveillance in this group through periodic regular check-ups and avoiding unnecessary exposure to Cd as much as possible. Also due to the high concentration of Cd in smokers, there should be more awareness of the damaging effects of smoking, especially among pregnant women, and more attention to local industries, especially those dealing with Cd, is necessary. These industries should be kept at a safe distance from residential areas.

Keywords: cadmium; environmental exposure; heavy metals; Iran


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About the article

Received: 2016-08-11

Accepted: 2016-10-13

Published Online: 2016-11-30

Published in Print: 2016-12-01

Citation Information: Reviews on Environmental Health, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 457–463, ISSN (Online) 2191-0308, ISSN (Print) 0048-7554, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0042.

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