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Reviews in Inorganic Chemistry

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Volume 34, Issue 2


Metalloid Sn clusters: properties and the novel synthesis via a disproportionation reaction of a monohalide

Claudio Schrenk
  • Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Andreas Schnepf
  • Corresponding author
  • Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-10-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revic-2013-0016


Metalloid cluster compounds of tin of the general formulae SnnRm with n>m (R=organic ligand), where beside ligand-bound tin atoms also “naked” tin atoms, that only bind to other tin atoms, are present, represent a novel class of cluster compounds in tin chemistry. As the “naked” tin atoms inside these clusters exhibit an oxidation state of 0, the average oxidation state of the tin atoms within such metalloid tin clusters is in between 0 and 1. Thus, these cluster compounds may be seen as intermediates on the way to the elemental state. Therefore, interesting properties are expected for these compounds, which might complement results from nanotechnology. During the last years, different syntheses of such novel cluster compounds have been introduced, leading to several metalloid tin cluster compounds, which exhibit new and partly unusual structure and bonding properties. In this review, recent results in this novel field of group 14 chemistry are discussed, whereby special attention is focused on the novel synthetic route applying a disproportionation reaction of metastable Sn(I) halides.

Keywords: cryochemistry; metalloid clusters; subvalent halide; tin


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About the article

Claudio Schrenk

Claudio Schrenk studied chemistry from 2003 to 2008 at the University of Karlsruhe. He finished his diploma thesis in 2008 in the group of Prof. A. Schnepf. He started his PhD studies on subvalent tin halides in Karlsruhe in 2008 and moved together with Prof. Schnepf to the University Duisburg-Essen in 2010, where he finished his PhD thesis in 2012. He stayed at the group of Prof. Schnepf, which moved to the University Tübingen in 2012, where he is now a postdoctoral coworker.

Andreas Schnepf

Andreas Schnepf studied Chemistry at the University of Karlsruhe where he finished his Diploma thesis in organic chemistry in the group of Prof. H.-J. Knölker in 1996. Afterwards, he went to the Inorganic Chemistry Department and finished his PhD thesis in the group of Prof. H. Schnöckel in 2000, where he also stayed for a postdoc since 2002 – research stays at the research facilities in Hamburg (DESY Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron) and Villingen (PSI: Paul Scherrer Institute). In 2002, he started his independent scientific career at the University of Karlsruhe on the chemistry of Ge(I) halides and their application in synthetic chemistry (Habilitation 2006), first as a DFG-Fellow and later as a DFG-Heisenberg-Fellow. In 2010, he was appointed as W2 Professor in Inorganic Chemistry at the University Duisburg-Essen, and in 2012, he moved to the University Tübingen as a W3 Professor for Nanostructured Functional Materials.

Corresponding author: Andreas Schnepf, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany, e-mail:

Received: 2013-08-19

Accepted: 2013-09-12

Published Online: 2013-10-22

Published in Print: 2014-06-01

Citation Information: Reviews in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 93–118, ISSN (Online) 2191-0227, ISSN (Print) 0193-4929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revic-2013-0016.

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Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2016, Volume 55, Number 23, Page 6721
Andreas Schnepf
Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements, 2016, Volume 191, Number 4, Page 662
Johan Lindgren, Andre Clayborne, and Lauri Lehtovaara
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2015, Volume 119, Number 33, Page 19539
Oleksandr Kysliak, Claudio Schrenk, and Andreas Schnepf
Inorganic Chemistry, 2015, Volume 54, Number 14, Page 7083
Claudio Schrenk, Birgit Gerke, Rainer Pöttgen, Andre Clayborne, and Andreas Schnepf
Chemistry - A European Journal, 2015, Volume 21, Number 22, Page 8222
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Dalton Trans., 2014, Volume 43, Number 42, Page 16097

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