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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Editor-in-Chief: Huston, Joseph P.

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Volume 25, Issue 2


Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in febrile seizures and epilepsy: systematic review and meta-analysis

Amene Saghazadeh
  • Molecular Immunology Research Center; and Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Maryam Gharedaghi / Alipasha Meysamie
  • Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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/ Sebastian Bauer
  • Klinik für Neurologie, Epilepsiezentrum Hessen (EZH), Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany
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/ Nima Rezaei
  • Corresponding author
  • Molecular Immunology Research Center; and Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dr. Qarib Street, Keshavarz Boulevard, Tehran 14194, Iran
  • Department of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK
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Published Online: 2014-02-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2013-0045


Activation of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines network seems to have a role in febrile seizures (FS). The present meta-analysis was aimed to pool the inconsistent data provided with case-control studies on the relationship of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and FS/epilepsy risk. The genotype interleukin (IL)-1α-889 1/1 (recessive model) was significantly correlated with increased risk of epilepsy (p=0.008) and FS/epilepsy (p=0.004). Patients with IL-1β-511 T/T homozygote were more susceptible to develop FS (p=0.036) but not epilepsy. Furthermore, the T/T genotype was totally associated with increased risk of FS/epilepsy (p=0.043). Although the recessive model was also confirmed for the Asian subgroup (FS and FS/epilepsy), we found a protective effect of C/C genotype toward developing FS in the Caucasian race (p=0.020). The second meta-analysis on cytokine levels showed a statistically higher serum level of IL-6 in patients with epilepsy compared to control subjects without epilepsy. The present meta-analysis showed that two alleles of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α-889 and IL-1β-511) in addition to the serum concentration of IL-6 were significantly associated with FS and epilepsy or both in various subgroup analyses.

Keywords: cytokines; epilepsy; febrile seizures


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About the article

Corresponding author: Nima Rezaei, Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dr. Qarib Street, Keshavarz Boulevard, Tehran 14194, Iran, e-mail: ; Molecular Immunology Research Center; and Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14194, Iran; and Department of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK

Received: 2013-10-20

Accepted: 2013-12-26

Published Online: 2014-02-07

Published in Print: 2014-04-01

Citation Information: Reviews in the Neurosciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 281–305, ISSN (Online) 2191-0200, ISSN (Print) 0334-1763, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2013-0045.

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