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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Editor-in-Chief: Huston, Joseph P.

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Volume 25, Issue 5


The role of Toll-like receptors in multiple sclerosis and possible targeting for therapeutic purposes

Maziar Gooshe
  • Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14194, Iran
  • Students’ Scientific Research Center (SSRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Amir Hossein Abdolghaffari
  • International Campus, ICTUMS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Institute of Medicinal Plants, Pharmacology and Applied Medicine, Department of Medicinal Plants Research Center, ACECR, Karaj, Iran
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Maria Elsa Gambuzza / Nima Rezaei
  • Corresponding author
  • Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14194, Iran
  • Molecular Immunology Research Center and Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Department of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-06-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2014-0026


The interaction between the immune and nervous systems suggests invaluable mechanisms for several pathological conditions, especially neurodegenerative disorders. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling chronic autoimmune disease, characterized by chronic inflammation and neurodegenerative pathology of the central nervous system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important family of receptors involved in host defense and in recognition of invading pathogens. The role of TLRs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as MS is only starting to be uncovered. Recent studies suggest an ameliorative role of TLR3 and a detrimental role of other TLRs in the onset and progression of MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a murine model of MS. Thus, modulating TLRs can represent an innovative immunotherapeutic approach in MS therapy. This article outlines the role of these TLRs in MS, also discussing TLR-targeted agonist or antagonists that could be used in the different stages of the disease.

Keywords: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; multiple sclerosis; Toll-like receptors; treatment


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About the article

Maziar Gooshe

Maziar Gooshe is a medical student of Tehran University of Medical Sciences with a broad and acute interest in the discovery of new pathways and underlying mechanis ms of human neurophysiology, having an interest in human reproductive medicine. Also, particularly enjoying collaboration with scientists from different disciplines to develop new skills and solve new challenges. He is already doing his study under the supervision of Dr. Nima Rezaei at the Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, while he is also getting some experiences at the Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology as well as the Experimental Medicine Research Center.

Amir Hossein Abdolghaffari

Amir Hossein Abdolghaffari is a Pharmacology PhD candidate at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, which has published 14 papers in international journals and contributed in 2 chapters of Encyclopedia of Toxicology from Elsevier. His research interest is in signaling and oxidative stress. He is already a researcher at the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology as well as Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR.

Maria Elsa Gambuzza

Maria Elsa Gambuzza is the Rome Adjunct microbiology professor at Degree Course of Biotechnology, University of Messina, who is already doing the Control Authority at the Ministry of Health. She has Degree in Biology – Specialization in Microbiology and Virology – PhD in “Microbial Biotechnology” and in “Clinical Neuroscience”. She has already several publications on role of Toll-like receptors in Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis.

Nima Rezaei

Nima Rezaei took the degree in Medicine in 2002 from Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the MSc in Molecular and Gentic Medicine in 2006, and the PhD in Human Genetics and Clinical Immunology in 2009 from the University of Sheffield. He is now working in Tehran University of Medical Sciences as an academic faculty member and as the chief executive director of the Children’s Medical Center. He is also the Deputy President of Research Center for Immunodeficiencies. He has presented more than 300 lectures/posters in congresses/meetings and has published more than 380 articles in international scientific journals during the last decade.

Corresponding author: Nima Rezaei, Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14194, Iran, e-mail:

Received: 2014-03-29

Accepted: 2014-05-08

Published Online: 2014-06-07

Published in Print: 2014-10-01

Citation Information: Reviews in the Neurosciences, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 713–739, ISSN (Online) 2191-0200, ISSN (Print) 0334-1763, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2014-0026.

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