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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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Volume 25, Issue 6


Autism: cause factors, early diagnosis and therapies

Shreya Bhat
  • Manipal Institute of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ U. Rajendra Acharya
  • Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore
  • Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603, Malaysia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hojjat Adeli
  • Corresponding author
  • Departments of Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Informatics, Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ G. Muralidhar Bairy
  • Manipal Institute of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Amir Adeli
Published Online: 2014-09-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2014-0056


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurobiological disorder characterized by neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. Cognitive impairment, lack of social skills, and stereotyped behavior are the major autistic symptoms, visible after a certain age. It is one of the fastest growing disabilities. Its current prevalence rate in the U.S. estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is 1 in 68 births. The genetic and physiological structure of the brain is studied to determine the pathology of autism, but diagnosis of autism at an early age is challenging due to the existing phenotypic and etiological heterogeneity among ASD individuals. Volumetric and neuroimaging techniques are explored to elucidate the neuroanatomy of the ASD brain. Nuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neuroimaging biomarkers can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of ASD. This paper presents a review of the types of autism, etiologies, early detection, and treatment of ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders; CHD8; GABA; neural connectivity; virtual reality


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About the article

Corresponding author: Hojjat Adeli, Departments of Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Informatics, Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, e-mail:

Received: 2014-08-08

Accepted: 2014-08-11

Published Online: 2014-09-12

Published in Print: 2014-12-01

Citation Information: Reviews in the Neurosciences, Volume 25, Issue 6, Pages 841–850, ISSN (Online) 2191-0200, ISSN (Print) 0334-1763, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2014-0056.

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