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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Editor-in-Chief: Huston, Joseph P.

Editorial Board: Topic, Bianca / Adeli, Hojjat / Buzsaki, Gyorgy / Crawley, Jacqueline / Crow, Tim / Gold, Paul / Holsboer, Florian / Korth, Carsten / Li, Jay-Shake / Lubec, Gert / McEwen, Bruce / Pan, Weihong / Pletnikov, Mikhail / Robbins, Trevor / Schnitzler, Alfons / Stevens, Charles / Steward, Oswald / Trojanowski, John

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Volume 29, Issue 5


Mechanisms and treatment of painful neuromas

Changfeng Lu
  • Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
  • Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226000, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Xun Sun
  • Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
  • School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Chong Wang
  • Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
  • Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226000, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Yu Wang
  • Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
  • Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226000, China
  • Beijing Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine in Orthopedics, Beijing 100853, China
  • Key Laboratory of Musculoskeletal Trauma and War Injuries, PLA, Beijing 100863, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jiang Peng
  • Corresponding author
  • Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
  • Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226000, China
  • Beijing Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine in Orthopedics, Beijing 100853, China
  • Key Laboratory of Musculoskeletal Trauma and War Injuries, PLA, Beijing 100863, China
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-01-08 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2017-0077


A painful neuroma is a common complication of a peripheral nerve injury or amputation, and it can cause tremendous pain that is resistant to most analgesics. Furthermore, painful neuromas have a high postoperative recurrence rate. Painful neuromas are often accompanied by functional disorders, drastically reducing the patient’s quality of life. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain this type of neuropathic pain, including peripheral and central sensitisation and the involvement of nerve growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and structural changes in neuroma fibres. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of neuroma-associated pain are not fully understood, contributing to the challenge of managing patients with painful neuromas. There are several effective treatment methods, although none are universally accepted. This review summarises the common mechanisms and treatments of painful neuromas, attempting to link the mechanisms and treatments. We hope to provide useful guidelines for choosing the appropriate treatment for the management of painful neuromas.

Keywords: mechanism; painful neuromas; peripheral nerve injury; prevention; treatment


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About the article

Received: 2017-09-02

Accepted: 2017-11-18

Published Online: 2018-01-08

Published in Print: 2018-07-26

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Citation Information: Reviews in the Neurosciences, Volume 29, Issue 5, Pages 557–566, ISSN (Online) 2191-0200, ISSN (Print) 0334-1763, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2017-0077.

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