Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Reviews in the Neurosciences

Editor-in-Chief: Huston, Joseph P.

Editorial Board: Topic, Bianca / Adeli, Hojjat / Buzsaki, Gyorgy / Crawley, Jacqueline / Crow, Tim / Gold, Paul / Holsboer, Florian / Korth, Carsten / Li, Jay-Shake / Lubec, Gert / McEwen, Bruce / Pan, Weihong / Pletnikov, Mikhail / Robbins, Trevor / Schnitzler, Alfons / Stevens, Charles / Steward, Oswald / Trojanowski, John

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 2.157
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 2.935

CiteScore 2017: 2.81

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.980
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.804

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 29, Issue 7


Mindfulness and meditation: treating cognitive impairment and reducing stress in dementia

Jesse Russell-Williams
  • School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, New South Wales, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Wafa Jaroudi
  • School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, New South Wales, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Tania Perich
  • School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, New South Wales, Australia
  • School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2751, New South Wales, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Siobhan Hoscheidt
  • Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem 27157, NC, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Mohamad El Haj
  • University of Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193–SCALab–Sciences Cognitive Sciences Affectives, F-59000 Lille, France
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ahmed A. Moustafa
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, New South Wales, Australia
  • Marcs Institute for Brain and Behaviour, Western Sydney University, Sydney 2751, New South Wales, Australia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-02-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2017-0066


This study investigates the relationship between mindfulness, meditation, cognition and stress in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia, mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline. Accordingly, we explore how the use of meditation as a behavioural intervention can reduce stress and enhance cognition, which in turn ameliorates some dementia symptoms. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with any studies using meditation as an intervention for dementia or dementia-related memory conditions meeting inclusion criteria. Studies where moving meditation was the main intervention were excluded due to the possible confounding of exercise. Ten papers were identified and reviewed. There was a broad use of measures across all studies, with cognitive assessment, quality of life and perceived stress being the most common. Three studies used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure functional changes to brain regions during meditation. The interventions fell into the following three categories: mindfulness, most commonly mindfulness-based stress reduction (six studies); Kirtan Kriya meditation (three studies); and mindfulness-based Alzheimer’s stimulation (one study). Three of these studies were randomised controlled trials. All studies reported significant findings or trends towards significance in a broad range of measures, including a reduction of cognitive decline, reduction in perceived stress, increase in quality of life, as well as increases in functional connectivity, percent volume brain change and cerebral blood flow in areas of the cortex. Limitations and directions for future studies on meditation-based treatment for AD and stress management are suggested.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; mild cognitive impairment (MCI); mindfulness; neural studies; stress


  • Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). Basics of Alzheimer’s disease: what it is and what you can do. Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/national/documents/brochure_basicsofalz_low.pdf.

  • Alzheimer’s Association. (2017). Medications for memory loss. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_standard_prescriptions.asp#cholinesterase.

  • Alzheimer’s Disease International. (2015). World Alzheimer Report 2015: The Global Impact of Dementia. Retrieved from: https://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2015.pdf.

  • Archer, N., Brown, R.G., Reeves, S., Nicholas, H., Boothby, H., and Lovestone, S. (2009). Midlife Neuroticism and the age of onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Psychol. Med. 39, 665–673.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Causes of death, Australia, 2014.Google Scholar

  • Azulay, J., Smart, C.M., Mott, T., and Cicerone, K.D. (2013). A pilot study examining the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on symptoms of chronic mild traumatic brain injury/postconcussive syndrome. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 28, 323–331.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Baer, R.A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 10, 125–143.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Berk, L., van Boxtel, M., and van Os, J. (2016). Can mindfulness-based interventions influence cognitive functioning in older adults? A review and considerations for future research. Aging Ment. Health 0, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2016. 1247423.

  • Bremner, J.D., Randall, P., Vermetten, E., Staib, L., Bronen, R.A., Mazure, C., Capelli, S., McCarthy, G., Innis, R.B., and Charney, D.S. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse – a preliminary report. Biol. Psychiatry 41, 23–32.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Brewer, J.A., Worhunsky, P.D., Gray, J.R., Tang, Y.-Y., Weber, J., and Kober, H. (2011). Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20254–20259.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Brown, L., Hansnata, E., and La, H.A. (2017). Economic cost of dementia in Australia. Alzheimer’s Australia, Canberra.Google Scholar

  • Brunson, K.L., Kramár, E., Lin, B., Chen, Y., Colgin, L.L., Yanagihara, T.K., Lynch, G., and Baram, T.Z. (2005). Mechanisms of late-onset cognitive decline after early-life stress. J. Neurosci. 25, 9328–9338.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Buchanan, T.W., al’Absi, M., and Lovallo, W.R. (1999). Cortisol fluctuates with increases and decreases in negative affect. Psychoneuroendocrinology 24, 227–241.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Campbell, S. and MacQueen, G. (2004). The role of the hippocampus in the pathophysiology of major depression. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 29, 417–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Carballedo, A., Lisiecka, D., Fagan, A., Saleh, K., Ferguson, Y., Connolly, G., Meaney, J., and Frodl, T. (2012). Early life adversity is associated with brain changes in subjects at family risk for depression. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 13, 569–578.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Chang, Y.P., Yang, C.H., Chou, M.C., Chen, C.H., and Yang, Y. H. (2015). Clinical compliance of donepezil in treating Alzheimer’s disease in Taiwan. Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Demen. 30, 346–351.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Cherbuin, N., Kim, S., and Anstey, K.J. (2015). Dementia risk estimates associated with measures of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2015;5:e008853. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008853.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cohen, R.A., Grieve, S., Hoth, K.F., Paul, R.H., Sweet, L., Tate, D., Gunstad, J., Stroud, L., McCaffery, J., Hitsman, B., et al. (2006). Early life stress and morphometry of the adult anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nuclei. Biol. Psychiatry 59, 975–982.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Davis, E.P., Glynn, L.M., Waffarn, F., and Sandman, C.A. (2011). Prenatal maternal stress programs infant stress regulation. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 52, 119–129.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • de Kloet, E.R., Oitzl, M.S., and Joels, M. (1999). Stress and cognition: are corticosteroids good or bad guys? A synthesis of behavioural, electrophysiological and molecular studies that assesses the complexity of corticosterone-memory interactions, providing insight into how stress enhances and impairs memory. Trends Neurosci. 22, 422–426.Google Scholar

  • Duman, R.S. (2002). Pathophysiology of depression: the concept of synaptic plasticity. Eur. Psychiatry 17, 306–310.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Field, T. (2011). Prenatal depression effects on early development: a review. Infant Behav. Dev. 34, 1–14.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fox, K.C.R., Nijeboer, S., Dixon, M.L., Floman, J.L., Ellamil, M., Rumak, S.P., Sedlmeier, P., and Christoff, K. (2014). Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 43, 48–73.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Frodl, T. and O’Keane, V. (2013). How does the brain deal with cumulative stress? A review with focus on developmental stress, HPA axis function and hippocampal structure in humans. Neurobiol. Dis. 52, 24–37.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Frodl, T., Reinhold, E., Koutsouleris, N., Reiser, M., and Meisenzahl, E.M. (2010). Interaction of childhood stress with hippocampus and prefrontal cortex volume reduction in major depression. J. Psychiatr. Res. 44, 799–807.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Gard, T., Hölzel, B.K., and Lazar, S.W. (2014). The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1307, 89–103.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Gianaros, P.J., Jennings, J.R., Sheu, L.K., Greer, P.J., Kuller, L.H., and Matthews, K.A. (2007). Prospective reports of chronic life stress predict decreased grey matter volume in the hippocampus. Neuroimage, 35, 795–803.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Golier, J.A., Yehuda, R., De Santi, S., Segal, S., Dolan, S., and de Leon, M.J. (2005). Absence of hippocampal volume differences in survivors of the Nazi Holocaust with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 139, 53–64.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gurvits, T.V., Shenton, M.E., Hokama, H., Ohta, H., Lasko, N.B., Gilbertson, M.W., Orr, S.P., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F.A., McCarley, R.W., et al. (1996). Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume in chronic, combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 40, 1091–1099.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Greicius, M.D., Srivastava, G., Reiss, A.L., and Menon, V. (2004). Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer’s disease from healthy aging: Evidence from functional MRI. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4637–4642.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., and Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. J. Psychosom. Res. 57, 35–43.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hofmann, S.G., Sawyer, A.T., Witt, A.A., and Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 78, 169–183.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hölzel, B.K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S.M., Gard, T., and Lazar, S.W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging 191, 36–43.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Innes, K.E. and Selfe, T.K. (2014). Meditation as a therapeutic intervention for adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease – potential benefits and underlying mechanisms. Front. Psychiatry, 5. 40.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Innes, K.E., Selfe, T.K., Brown, C.J., Rose, K.M., and Thompson-Heisterman, A. (2012). The effects of meditation on perceived stress and related indices of psychological status and sympathetic activation in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers: a pilot study. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2012, e927509.Google Scholar

  • Innes, K.E., Selfe, T.K., Khalsa, D.S., and Kandati, S. (2016a). A randomized controlled trial of two simple mind-body programs, Kirtan Kriya meditation and music listening, for adults with subjective cognitive decline: feasibility and acceptability. Complement. Ther. Med. 26, 98–107.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Innes, K.E., Selfe, T.K., Khalsa, D.S., and Kandati, S. (2016b). Effects of meditation versus music listening on perceived stress, mood, sleep, and quality of life in adults with early memory loss: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J. Alzheimers Dis. 52, 1277–1298.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jang, J.H., Jung, W.H., Kang, D.-H., Byun, M.S., Kwon, S.J., Choi, C.-H., and Kwon, J.S. (2011). Increased default mode network connectivity associated with meditation. Neurosci. Lett. 487, 358–362.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 4, 33–47.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness (New York: Delta Books).Google Scholar

  • Katz, M.J., Derby, C.A., Wang, C., Sliwinski, M.J., Ezzati, A., Zimmerman, M.E., Zwerling, J.L., and Lipton, R.B. (2016). Influence of perceived stress on incident amnestic mild cognitive impairment: Results from the Einstein Aging Study. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord 30, 93–98.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Khalsa, D.S. (2015). Stress, meditation, and Alzheimer’s disease prevention: where the evidence stands. J. Alzheimers Dis. 48, 1–12.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kim, J.J. and Yoon, K.S. (1998). Stress: metaplastic effects in the hippocampus. Trends Neurosci. 21, 505–509.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kim, J.J. and Diamond, D.M. (2002). The stressed hippocampus, synaptic plasticity and lost memories. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 453.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Larouche, E., Hudon, C., and Goulet, S. (2015). Potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: an interdisciplinary perspective. Behav. Brain Res. 276, 199–212.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lenze, E.J., Hickman, S., Hershey, T., Wendleton, L., Ly, K., Dixon, D., Doré, P., and Wetherell, J.L. (2014). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for older adults with worry symptoms and co-occurring cognitive dysfunction. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 29, 991–1000.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Luders, E. (2014). Exploring age-related brain degeneration in meditation practitioners. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1307, 82–88.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Luders, E., Clark, K., Narr, K.L., and Toga, A.W. (2011). Enhanced brain connectivity in long-term meditation practitioners. Neuroimage 57, 1308–1316.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Lupien, S.J., Wilkinson, C.W., Briere, S., Menard, C., Ng Ying Kin, N.M., and Nair, N.P. (2002). The modulatory effects of corticosteroids on cognition: studies in young human populations. Psychoneuroendocrinology 27, 401–416.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McEwen, B.S. (2000). Effects of adverse experiences for brain structure and function. Biol. Psychiatry 48, 721–731.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McEwen, B.S. and Sapolsky, R.M. (1995). Stress and cognitive function. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 5, 205–216.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mesulam, M.-M. (1983). The functional anatomy and hemispheric specialization for directed attention: the role of the parietal lobe and its connectivity. Trends Neurosci. 6, 384–387.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Newberg, A.B., Wintering, N., Khalsa, D.S., Roggenkamp, H., and Waldman, M.R. (2010). Meditation effects on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow in subjects with memory loss: a preliminary study. J. Alzheimers Dis. 20, 517–526.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Newberg, A.B., Serruya, M., Wintering, N., Moss, A.S., Reibel, D., and Monti, D.A. (2014). Meditation and neurodegenerative diseases. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1307, 112–123.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nima, A.A., Rosenberg, P., Archer, T., and Garcia, D. (2013). Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression. PLoS One 8, e73265.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Paller, K.A., Creery, J.D., Florczak, S.M., Weintraub, S., Mesulam, M.-M., Reber, P.J., Kiragu, J., Rooks, J., Safron, A., Morhardt D., et al. (2015). Benefits of mindfulness training for patients with progressive cognitive decline and their caregivers. Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Demen. 30, 257–267.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Petersen, R.C., Doody, R., Kurz, A., Mohs, R.C., Morris, J.C., Rabins, P.V., Ritchie, K., Rossor, M., Thal, L., and Winblad, B. (2001). Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Arch. Neurol. 58, 1985–1992.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Phelps, E.A. (2004). Human emotion and memory: interactions of the amygdala and hippocampal complex. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 14, 198–202.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Quintana-Hernández, D.J., Miró-Barrachina, M.T., Ibáñez-Fernández, I.J., Pino, A.S., Quintana-Montesdeoca, M.P., Rodríguez-de Vera, B., Morales-Casanova, D., Pérez-Vieitez Mdel, C., Rodríguez-García, J., and Bravo-Caraduje, N. (2016). Mindfulness in the maintenance of cognitive capacities in Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized clinical trial. J. Alzheimers Dis. 50, 217–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Santina, P.D. (1997). The Tree of Enlightenment (Taipei: The Corporate Body of the Buddha Education Foundation).Google Scholar

  • Saxe, R. and Kanwisher, N. (2003). People thinking about thinking people: the role of the temporo-parietal junction in “theory of mind.” Neuroimage 19, 1835–1842.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Seltzer, B., Zolnouni, P., Nunez, M., Goldman, R., Kumar, D., Ieni, J., and Richardson, S. (2004). Efficacy of donepezil in early-stage Alzheimer disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Arch. Neurol. 61, 1852–1856.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Smart, C.M., Segalowitz, S.J., Mulligan, B.P., and MacDonald, S.W. (2014). Attention capacity and self-report of subjective cognitive decline: A P3 ERP study. Biol. Psychol. 103, 144–151.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Smart, C.M., Segalowitz, S.J., Mulligan, B.P., Koudys, J., and Gawryluk, J.R. (2016). Mindfulness training for older adults with subjective cognitive decline: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial. J. Alzheimers Dis. 52, 757–774.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Sorg, C., Riedl, V., Mühlau, M., Calhoun, V.D., Eichele, T., Läer, L., Drzezga, A., Förstl, H., Kurz, A., Zimmer, C., et al. (2007). Selective changes of resting-state networks in individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18760–18765.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stein, M.B., Koverola, C., Hanna, C., Torchia, M.G., and McClarty, B. (1997). Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse. Psychol. Med. 27, 951–959.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tang, Y.Y., Holzel, B.K., and Posner, M.I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 16, 213–225.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Taylor, V.A., Daneault, V., Grant, J., Scavone, G., Breton, E., Roffe-Vidal, S., Courtemanche, J., Lavarenne, A.S., Marrelec, G., Benali, H., et al. (2013). Impact of meditation training on the default mode network during a restful state. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 8, 4–14.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Utto, M., Vasterling, J.J., Brailey, K. and Sutker, P.B. (1993). Memory and attention in combat related posttraumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD). J. Psychopathol. Behav. Assess. 15, 43–52.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • van Harmelen, A.L., van Tol, M.J., van der Wee, N.J., Veltman, D.J., Aleman, A., Spinhoven, P., van Buchem, M.A., Zitman, F.G., Penninx, B.W., and Elzinga, B.M. (2010). Reduced medial prefrontal cortex volume in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Biol. Psychiatry 68, 832–838.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Wagner, A.D., Shannon, B.J., Kahn, I., and Buckner, R.L. (2005). Parietal lobe contributions to episodic memory retrieval. Trends Cogn. Sci. 9, 445–453.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wells, R.E., Kerr, C.E., Wolkin, J., Dossett, M., Davis, R.B., Walsh, J., Wall, R.B., Kong, J., Kaptchuk, T., Yeh, G., et al. (2013a). Meditation for adults with mild cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized trial. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 61, 642–645.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wells, R.E., Yeh, G.Y., Kerr, C.E., Wolkin, J., Davis, R.B., Tan, Y., Spaeth, R., Wall, R.B., Walsh, J., Kaptchuk, T.J., et al. (2013b). Meditation’s impact on default mode network and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Neurosci. Lett. 556, 15–19.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Weniger, G., Lange, C., Sachsse, U., and Irle, E. (2008). Amygdala and hippocampal volumes and cognition in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 118, 281–290.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wilson, R.S., Arnold, S.E., Schneider, J.A., Li, Y., and Bennett, D.A. (2007a). Chronic distress, age-related neuropathology, and late-life dementia. Psychosom. Med. 69, 47–53.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wilson, R.S., Schneider, J.A., Boyle, P.A., Arnold, S.E., Tang, Y., and Bennett, D.A. (2007b). Chronic distress and incidence of mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 68, 2085–2092.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wilson, R.S., Begeny, C.T., Boyle, P.A., Schneider, J.A., and Bennett, D.A. (2011). Vulnerability to stress, anxiety, and development of dementia in old age. Am. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 19, 327–334.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Young, A.H., Sahakian, B.J., Robbins, T.W., Cowen, P.J. (1999). The effects of chronic administration of hydrocortisone on cognitive function in normal male volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 145, 260–266.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zylowska L., Ackerman D.L., Yang, M.H., Futrell, J.L., Horton, N.L., Hale, T.S., Pataki, C., and Smalley, S.L. (2008). Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: A feasibility study. J. Atten. Disord. 11, 737–746.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-08-11

Accepted: 2017-12-08

Published Online: 2018-02-21

Published in Print: 2018-09-25

Citation Information: Reviews in the Neurosciences, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 791–804, ISSN (Online) 2191-0200, ISSN (Print) 0334-1763, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2017-0066.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Anuja Sharma and Yatender Kumar
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports, 2019, Page 1
Sara Lima, Carolina Garrett, José C. Machado, Margarida Vilaça, and M. Graça Pereira
Aging & Mental Health, 2019, Page 1
Rebecca Erwin Wells, Catherine Kerr, Michelle L. Dossett, Suzanne C. Danhauer, Stephanie J. Sohl, Bonnie C. Sachs, Jacquelyn Walsh Feeley, Jennifer Wolkin, Robert Wall, Ted Kaptchuk, Daniel Z. Press, Russell S. Phillips, Gloria Y. Yeh, and Dharma Singh Khalsa
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 2019, Volume 70, Number 3, Page 825
Thomas M. Wassenaar, Kristine Yaffe, Ysbrand D. van der Werf, and Claire E. Sexton
Neurobiology of Aging, 2019, Volume 80, Page 56
R. Sood, C. L. Kuhle, E. Kapoor, J. M. Thielen, K. S. Frohmader, K. C. Mara, and S. S. Faubion
Climacteric, 2019, Volume 22, Number 4, Page 377
Elke Kalbe, Dag Aarsland, Ann-Kristin Folkerts, Patrik Brundin, J. William Langston, and Bastiaan R. Bloem
Journal of Parkinson's Disease, 2018, Volume 8, Number s1, Page S107
Stephen T. Chen, Dax Volle, Jason Jalil, Pauline Wu, and Gary W. Small
The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2018
Paul D Loprinzi, Jeremiah Blough, Seungho Ryu, and Minsoo Kang
The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 2018, Page 1

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in