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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Editor-in-Chief: Huston, Joseph P.

Editorial Board: Topic, Bianca / Adeli, Hojjat / Buzsaki, Gyorgy / Crawley, Jacqueline / Crow, Tim / Gold, Paul / Holsboer, Florian / Korth, Carsten / Li, Jay-Shake / Lubec, Gert / McEwen, Bruce / Pan, Weihong / Pletnikov, Mikhail / Robbins, Trevor / Schnitzler, Alfons / Stevens, Charles / Steward, Oswald / Trojanowski, John


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Volume 30, Issue 1

Issues

Zebrafish as a translational regeneration model to study the activation of neural stem cells and role of their environment

Marcello Ceci
  • Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, University of Tuscia, largo dell’Università, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Vittoria Mariano
  • Department of Fundamental Neurosciences, University of Lausanne, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nicla RomanoORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0155-8271
Published Online: 2018-08-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2018-0020

Abstract

The review is an overview of the current knowledge of neuronal regeneration properties in mammals and fish. The ability to regenerate the damaged parts of the nervous tissue has been demonstrated in all vertebrates. Notably, fish and amphibians have the highest capacity for neurogenesis, whereas reptiles and birds are able to only regenerate specific regions of the brain, while mammals have reduced capacity for neurogenesis. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a promising model of study because lesions in the brain or complete cross-section of the spinal cord are followed by an effective neuro-regeneration that successfully restores the motor function. In the brain and the spinal cord of zebrafish, stem cell activity is always able to re-activate the molecular programs required for central nervous system regeneration. In mammals, traumatic brain injuries are followed by reduced neurogenesis and poor axonal regeneration, often insufficient to functionally restore the nervous tissue, while spinal injuries are not repaired at all. The environment that surrounds the stem cell niche constituted by connective tissue and stimulating factors, including pro-inflammation molecules, seems to be a determinant in triggering stem cell proliferation and/or the trans-differentiation of connective elements (mainly fibroblasts). Investigating and comparing the neuronal regeneration in zebrafish and mammals may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind neurogenesis, and the failure of the regenerative response in mammals, first of all, the role of inflammation, considered the main inhibitor of the neuronal regeneration.

Keywords: mammals; neurogenic niche; neuroinflammation; neuronal stem cells; reparative neurogenesis; zebrafish

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About the article

Received: 2018-03-04

Accepted: 2018-04-27

Published Online: 2018-08-01

Published in Print: 2018-12-19


Citation Information: Reviews in the Neurosciences, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 45–66, ISSN (Online) 2191-0200, ISSN (Print) 0334-1763, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2018-0020.

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