Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
In This Section

Seminars in Cardiovascular Medicine

The Journal of Lithuanian Heart Association

1 Issue per year

Open Access
Online
ISSN
1822-7767
See all formats and pricing
In This Section

Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing

Reginald Liew
  • Corresponding author
  • Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore
  • Gleneagles Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
  • Email:
Published Online: 2014-01-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/semcard-2013-0006

Summary

Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management. This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

  • [1] Huxley RR, Alonso A, Lopez FL, et al. Type 2 diabetes, glucose homeostasis and incident atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Heart 2012;98:133-8. [Crossref]

  • [2] Emilsson L, Smith JG, West J, et al. Increased risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with coeliac disease: a nationwide cohort study. Eur Heart J 2011;32:2430-7. [Crossref]

  • [3] Lindhardsen J, Ahlehoff O, Gislason GH, et al. Risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke in rheumatoid arthritis: Danish nationwide cohort study. BMJ 2012;344:e1257.

  • [4] Ahlehoff O, Gislason GH, Jorgensen CH, et al. Psoriasis and risk of atrial fibrillation and ischaemic stroke: a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study. Eur Heart J 2012;33:2054-64. [Crossref]

  • [5] Schmidt M, Christiansen CF, Mehnert F, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter: population based case-control study. BMJ 2011;343:d3450.

  • [6] Rosenberg MA, Patton KK, Sotoodehnia N, et al. The impact of height on the risk of atrial fibrillation: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Eur Heart J 2012;33:2709-17. [Crossref]

  • [7] Ball J, Carrington MJ, Stewart S. Mild cognitive impairment in high-risk patients with chronic atrial fibrillation: a forgotten component of clinical management? Heart 2013;99:542-7. [Crossref]

  • [8] Wu JHY, Lemaitre RN, King IB, et al. Association of plasma phospholipid long-chain omega-3 fatty acids with incident atrial fibrillation in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Circulation 2012;125:1084-93. [Crossref]

  • [9] Bansal N, Fan D, Hsu Cy, et al. Incident atrial fibrillation and risk of end-stage renal disease in adults with chronic kidney disease. Circulation 2013;127:569-74. [Crossref]

  • [10] Jabre P, Jouven X, Adnet Fdr, et al. Atrial fibrillation and death after myocardial infarction: a community study.Circulation 2011;123:2094-100. [Crossref]

  • [11] Friberg L, Benson L, Rosenqvist M, et al. Assessment of female sex as a risk factor in atrial fibrillation in Sweden: nationwide retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2012;344:e3522.

  • [12] Avgil TM, Jackevicius CA, Rahme E, et al. Sex differences in stroke risk among older patients with recently diagnosed atrial fibrillation. JAMA 2012;307:1952-8.

  • [13] Conen D, Chae CU, Glynn RJ, et al. Risk of death and cardiovascular events in initially healthy women with new-onset atrial fibrillation. JAMA 2011;305:2080-7.

  • [14] Steg PG, Alam S, Chiang CE, et al. Symptoms, functional status and quality of life in patients with controlled and uncontrolled atrial fibrillation: data from the RealiseAF cross-sectional international registry. Heart 2012;98:195-201. [Crossref]

  • [15] Camm AJ, Breithardt G+, Crijns H, et al. Real-life observations of clinical outcomes with rhythmand rate-control therapies for atrial fibrillation: RECORDAF (Registry on Cardiac Rhythm Disorders Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation). J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:493-501. [Crossref]

  • [16] Van Gelder IC, Groenveld HF, Crijns HJ, et al. Lenient versus strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation.N Engl J Med 2010;362:1363-73. [Crossref]

  • [17] Groenveld HF, Crijns HJGM, Van den Berg MP, et al.The effect of rate control on quality of life in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation: data from the RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation II) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:1795-803. [Crossref]

  • [18] Smit MD, Crijns HJGM, Tijssen JGP, et al. Effect of lenient versus strict rate control on cardiac remodeling in patients with atrial fibrillation: data of the RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation II) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:942-9. [Crossref]

  • [19] Saksena S, Slee A, Waldo AL, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes in the AFFIRM trial (Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management): an assessment of individual antiarrhythmic drug therapies compared with rate control with propensity score-matched analyses.J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:1975-85. [Crossref]

  • [20] Yamase M, Nakazato Y, Daida H. Effectiveness of amiodarone versus bepridil in achieving conversion to sinus rhythm in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: a randomised trial. Heart 2012;98:1067-71. [Crossref]

  • [21] Liu T, Korantzopoulos P, Shehata M, et al. Prevention of atrial fibrillation with omega-3 fatty acids: a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Heart 2011;97:1034-40. [Crossref]

  • [22] Macchia A, Grancelli H, Varini S, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation: results of the FORWARD (Randomized Trial to Assess Efficacy of PUFA for the Maintenance of Sinus Rhythm in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:463-8. [Crossref]

  • [23] Mozaffarian D, Marchioli R, Macchia A, et al. Fish oil and postoperative atrial fibrillation: the Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) randomized trial. JAMA 2012;308:2001-11. [Crossref]

  • [24] Nodari S, Triggiani M, Campia U, et al. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrences after electrical cardioversion: a prospective, randomized study. Circulation 2011;124:1100-6. [Crossref]

  • [25] Healey JS, Connolly SJ, Gold MR, et al. Subclinical atrial fibrillation and the risk of stroke. N Engl J Med 2012;366:120-9. [Crossref]

  • [26] Ritter MA, Kochhauser S, Duning T, et al. Occult atrial fibrillation in cryptogenic stroke: detection by 7-day electrocardiogram versus implantable cardiac monitors.Stroke 2013;44:1449-52. [Crossref]

  • [27] Mittal S, Movsowitz C, Steinberg JS. Ambulatory external electrocardiographic monitoring: focus on atrial fibrillation.J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:1741-9. [Crossref]

  • [28] Roten L, Schilling M, Haberlin A, et al. Is 7-day event triggered ECG recording equivalent to 7-day Holter ECG recording for atrial fibrillation screening? Heart 2012;98:645-9. [Crossref]

  • [29] Charitos EI, Stierle U, Ziegler PD, et al. A comprehensive evaluation of rhythm monitoring strategies for the detection of atrial fibrillation recurrence: insights from 647 continuously monitored patients and implications for monitoring after therapeutic interventions. Circulation 2012;126:806-14.

  • [30] Deftereos S, Giannopoulos G, Kossyvakis C, et al. Estimation of atrial fibrillation recency of onset and safety of cardioversion using NTproBNP levels in patients with unknown time of onset. Heart 2011;97:914-17. [Crossref]

  • [31] Cosedis Nielsen J, Johannessen A, Raatikainen P, et al.Radiofrequency ablation as initial therapy in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1587-95. [Crossref]

  • [32] MacDonald MR, Connelly DT, Hawkins NM, et al. Radiofrequency ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation in patients with advanced heart failure and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomised controlled trial. Heart 2011;97:740-7. [Crossref]

  • [33] Hunter RJ, McCready J, Diab I, et al. Maintenance of sinus rhythm with an ablation strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation is associated with a lower risk of stroke and death. Heart 2012;98:48-53. [Crossref]

  • [34] Miyazaki S, Kuwahara T, Kobori A, et al. Longterm clinical outcome of extensive pulmonary vein isolation-based catheter ablation therapy in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. Heart 2011;97:668-73. [Crossref]

  • [35] Mun HS, Joung B, Shim J, et al. Does additional linear ablation after circumferential pulmonary vein isolation improve clinical outcome in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation? Prospective randomised study. Heart 2012;98:480-4. [Crossref]

  • [36] Chao TF, Sung SH,Wang KL, et al. Associations between the atrial electromechanical interval, atrial remodelling and outcome of catheter ablation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Heart 2011;97:225-30. [Crossref]

  • [37] den Uijl DW, Delgado V, Bertini M, et al. Impact of left atrial fibrosis and left atrial size on the outcome of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Heart 2011;97:1847-51. [Crossref]

  • [38] Wong CX, Abed HS, Molaee P, et al. Pericardial fat is associated with atrial fibrillation severity and ablation outcome. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;57:1745-51. [Crossref]

  • [39] Hussein AA, Saliba WI, Martin DO, et al. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels and recurrent arrhythmia after successful ablation of lone atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2011;123:2077-82. [Crossref]

  • [40] Tokuda M, Yamane T, Matsuo S, et al. Relationship between renal function and the risk of recurrent atrial fibrillation following catheter ablation. Heart 2011;97:137-42. [Crossref]

  • [41] Mohanty S, Mohanty P, Di Biase L, et al. Impact of metabolic syndrome on procedural outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing catheter ablation.J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:1295-301. [Crossref]

  • [42] Lee G, Kalman JM, Vohra JK, et al. Dissociated pulmonary vein potentials following antral pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation: impact on long-term outcome. Heart 2011;97:579-84. [Crossref]

  • [43] Deftereos S, Giannopoulos G, Kossyvakis C, et al.Colchicine for prevention of early atrial fibrillation recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation: a randomized controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:1790-6. [Crossref]

  • [44] Imazio M, Brucato A, Ferrazzi P, et al. Colchicine reduces postoperative atrial fibrillation: results of the Colchicine for the Prevention of the Postpericardiotomy Syndrome (COPPS) atrial fibrillation substudy. Circulation 2011;124:2290-5. [Crossref]

  • [45] Pokushalov E, Romanov A, Corbucci G, et al. A randomized comparison of pulmonary vein isolation with versus without concomitant renal artery denervation in patients with refractory symptomatic atrial fibrillation and resistant hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:1163-70. [Crossref]

  • [46] Shah RU, Freeman JV, Shilane D, et al. Procedural complications, rehospitalizations, and repeat procedures after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:143-9. [Crossref]

  • [47] Chao TF, Lin YJ, Tsao HM, et al. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in the prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:2380-5. [Crossref]

  • [48] Boersma LVA, Castella M, van Boven W, et al. Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation Versus Surgical Ablation Treatment (FAST): a 2-center randomized clinical trial.Circulation 2012;125:23-30. [Crossref]

  • [49] Pison L, La Meir M, van Opstal J, et al. Hybrid thoracoscopic surgical and transvenous catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:54-61. [Crossref]

  • [50] Lopes RD, Al-Khatib SM, Wallentin L, et al. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin according to patient risk of stroke and of bleeding in atrial fibrillation: a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012;380:1749-58. [Crossref]

  • [51] Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011;365:883-91. [Crossref]

  • [52] Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJV, et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.N Engl J Med 2011;365:981-92. [Crossref]

  • [53] Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1139-51. [Crossref]

  • [54] Dentali F, Riva N, Crowther M, et al. Efficacy and safety of the novel oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.Circulation 2012;126:2381-91. [Crossref]

  • [55] Nagarakanti R, Ezekowitz MD, Oldgren J, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis of patients undergoing cardioversion. Circulation 2011;123:131-6. [Crossref]

  • [56] Maddox W, Kay GN, Yamada T, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin therapy for uninterrupted oral anticoagulation during atrial fibrillation ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2013;24:861-5. [Crossref]

  • [57] Bassiouny M, SalibaW, Rickard J, et al. Use of dabigatran for periprocedural anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2013;6:460-6.

  • [58] Kim JS, She F, Jongnarangsin K, et al. Dabigatran vs warfarin for radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm 2013;10:483-9. [Crossref]

  • [59] Lakkireddy D, Reddy YM, Di Biase L, et al. Feasibility and safety of dabigatran versus warfarin for periprocedural anticoagulation in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation: results from a multicenter prospective registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:1168-74. [PubMed] [Crossref]

  • [60] Kansal AR, Sorensen SV, Gani R, et al. Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in UK patients with atrial fibrillation.Heart 2012;98:573-8. [Crossref]

  • [61] Shah SV, Gage BF. Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2011;123:2562-70. [Crossref]

  • [62] Munkholm-Larsen S, Cao C, Yan TD, et al. Percutaneous atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review. Heart 2012;98:900-7. [Crossref]

  • [63] Viles-Gonzalez JF, Kar S, Douglas P, et al. The clinical impact of incomplete left atrial appendage closure with the watchman device in patients with atrial fibrillation: a PROTECT AF (Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage Versus Warfarin Therapy for Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation) substudy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:923-9.

  • [64] Mahajan R, Brooks AG, Sullivan T, et al. Importance of the underlying substrate in determining thrombus location in atrial fibrillation: implications for left atrial appendage closure. Heart 2012;98:1120-6. [Crossref]

  • [65] Leong DP, Hoke U, Delgado V, et al. Right ventricular function and survival following cardiac resynchronisation therapy. Heart 2013;99:722-8. [Crossref]

  • [66] Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS, et al. Cardiacresynchronization therapy for the prevention of heart-failure events. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1329-38. [Crossref]

  • [67] Goldenberg I, Hall WJ, Beck CA, et al. Reduction of the risk of recurring heart failure events with cardiac resynchronization therapy: MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy). J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:729-37. [Crossref]

  • [68] Brenyo A, Link MS, Barsheshet A, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy reduces left atrial volume and the risk of atrial tachyarrhythmias in MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy). J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:1682-9. [Crossref]

  • [69] Goldenberg I, Moss AJ, Hall WJ, et al. Predictors of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT). Circulation 2011;124:1527-36. [Crossref]

  • [70] Pouleur AC, Knappe D, Shah AM, et al. Relationship between improvement in left ventricular dyssynchrony and contractile function and clinical outcome with cardiac resynchronization therapy: the MADIT-CRT trial.Eur Heart J 2011;32:1720-9. [Crossref]

  • [71] Hsu JC, Solomon SD, Bourgoun M, et al. Predictors of super-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy and associated improvement in clinical outcome: theMADIT-CRT (multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trial with cardiac resynchronization therapy) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:2366-73. [Crossref]

  • [72] Veazie PJ, Noyes K, Li Q, et al. Cardiac resynchronization and quality of life in patients with minimally symptomatic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:1940-4. [Crossref]

  • [73] Singh JP, Klein HU, Huang DT, et al. Left ventricular lead position and clinical outcome in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) trial. Circulation 2011;123:1159-66. [Crossref]

  • [74] Kutyifa V, ZarebaW, McNitt S, et al. Left ventricular lead location and the risk of ventricular arrhythmias in the MADIT-CRT trial. Eur Heart J 2013;34:184-90. [Crossref]

  • [75] Diab IG, Hunter RJ, Kamdar R, et al. Does ventricular dyssynchrony on echocardiography predict response to cardiac resynchronisation therapy? A randomised controlled study. Heart 2011;97:1410-16. [Crossref]

  • [76] Foley PWX, Patel K, Irwin N, et al. Cardiac resynchronisation therapy in patients with heart failure and a normal QRS duration: the RESPOND study. Heart 2011;97:1041-7. [Crossref]

  • [77] Zareba W, Klein H, Cygankiewicz I, et al. Effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization therapy by QRS morphology in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT). Circulation 2011;123:1061-72. [Crossref]

  • [78] Brignole M, Botto G, Mont L, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients undergoing atrioventricular junction ablation for permanent atrial fibrillation: a randomized trial. Eur Heart J 2011;32:2420-9. [Crossref]

  • [79] Brignole M, Botto GL, Mont L, et al. Predictors of clinical efficacy of ablate and pace therapy in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. Heart 2012;98:297-302. [Crossref]

  • [80] Chan JY-S, Fang F, Zhang Q, et al. Biventricular pacing is superior to right ventricular pacing in bradycardia patients with preserved systolic function: 2-year results of the PACE trial. Eur Heart J 2011;32:2533-40. [Crossref]

  • [81] Coumbe AG, Naksuk N, Newell MC, et al. Long-term follow-up of older patients with Mobitz type I second degree atrioventricular block. Heart 2013;99:334-8. [Crossref]

  • [82] van Geldorp IE, Delhaas T, Gebauer RA, et al. Impact of the permanent ventricular pacing site on left ventricular function in children: a retrospective multicentre survey.Heart 2011;97:2051-5. [Crossref]

  • [83] Brignole M, Menozzi C, Moya A, et al. Pacemaker therapy in patients with neurally mediated syncope and documented asystole: third International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology (ISSUE-3): a randomized trial. Circulation 2012;125:2566-71. [Crossref]

  • [84] Deharo JC, Mechulan A, Giorgi R, et al. Adenosine plasma level and A2A adenosine receptor expression: correlation with laboratory tests in patients with neurally mediated syncope. Heart 2012;98:855-9. [Crossref]

  • [85] Flammang D, Church TR, De Roy L, et al. Treatment of unexplained syncope: a multicenter, randomized trial of cardiac pacing guided by adenosine 5-triphosphate testing. Circulation 2012;125:31-6. [Crossref]

  • [86] Brignole M, Deharo JC, De Roy L, et al. Syncope due to idiopathic paroxysmal atrioventricular block: long-term follow-up of a distinct form of atrioventricular block.J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:167-73. [Crossref]

  • [87] Ruwald MH, Hansen ML, Lamberts M, et al. Prognosis among healthy individuals discharged with a primary diagnosis of syncope. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:325-32. [Crossref]

  • [88] Athan E, Chu VH, Tattevin P, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcome of infective endocarditis involving implantable cardiac devices. JAMA 2012;307:1727-35.

  • [89] Deharo JC, Quatre A, Mancini J, et al. Long-term outcomes following infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices: a prospective matched cohort study.Heart 2012;98:724-31. [Crossref]

  • [90] Greenspon AJ, Prutkin JM, Sohail MR, et al. Timing of the most recent device procedure influences the clinical outcome of lead-associated endocarditis: results of the MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Infection Cohort). J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:681-7. [Crossref]

  • [91] Ye S, Grunnert M, Thune JJ, et al. Circumstances and outcomes of sudden unexpected death in patients with high-risk myocardial infarction: implications for prevention.Circulation 2011;123:2674-80. [Crossref]

  • [92] Soliman EZ, Prineas RJ, Case LD, et al. Electrocardiographic and clinical predictors separating atherosclerotic sudden cardiac death from incident coronary heart disease. Heart 2011;97:1597-601. [Crossref]

  • [93] Marijon E, Tafflet M, Celermajer DS, et al. Sports-related sudden death in the general population. Circulation 2011;124:672-81. [Crossref]

  • [94] Eckart RE, Shry EA, Burke AP, et al. Sudden death in young adults: an autopsy-based series of a popula- tion undergoing active surveillance. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:1254-61. [Crossref]

  • [95] Winkel BG, Holst AG, Theilade J, et al. Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years. Eur Heart J 2011;32:983-90. [Crossref]

  • [96] Bertoia ML, Allison MA, Manson JE, et al. Risk factors for sudden cardiac death in post-menopausal women.J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:2674-82. [Crossref]

  • [97] Haissaguerre M, Derval N, Sacher F, et al. Sudden cardiac arrest associated with early repolarization. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2016-23. [Crossref]

  • [98] Tikkanen JT, Anttonen O, Junttila MJ, et al. Long-term outcome associated with early repolarization on electrocardiography.N Engl J Med 2009; 361:2529-37. [Crossref]

  • [99] Derval N, Simpson CS, Birnie DH, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of early repolarization in the CASPER registry: cardiac arrest survivors with preserved ejection fraction registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:722-8. [Crossref]

  • [100] Nunn LM, Bhar-Amato J, Lowe MD, et al. Prevalence of J-point elevation in sudden arrhythmic death syndrome families. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:286-90. [Crossref]

  • [101] Gourraud JB, Le Scouarnec S, Sacher F, et al. Identification of large families in early repolarization syndrome.J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:164-72.

  • [102] Haruta D, Matsuo K, Tsuneto A, et al. Incidence and prognostic value of early repolarization pattern in the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Circulation 2011;123:2931-7. [Crossref]

  • [103] Bastiaenen R, Behr ER. Early repolarisation: controversies and clinical implications. Heart 2012;98:841-7. [Crossref]

  • [104] Junttila MJ, Sager SJ, Tikkanen JT, et al. Clinical significance of variants of J-points and J-waves: early repolarization patterns and risk. Eur Heart J 2012;33:2639-43. [Crossref]

  • [105] Bastiaenen R, Behr ER. Sudden death and ion channel disease: pathophysiology and implications for management.Heart 2011;97:1365-72. [Crossref]

  • [106] Nunn LM, Lambiase PD. Genetics and cardiovascular disease - causes and prevention of unexpected sudden adult death: the role of the SADS clinic. Heart 2011;97:1122-7. [Crossref]

  • [107] Corrado D, Basso C, Pilichou K, et al. Molecular biology and clinical management of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. Heart 2011;97:530-9. [Crossref]

  • [108] Napolitano C, Bloise R, Monteforte N, et al. Sudden cardiac death and genetic ion channelopathies: long QT, Brugada, short QT, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation.Circulation 2012;125:2027-34. [Crossref]

  • [109] Jamshidi Y, Nolte IM, Dalageorgou C, et al. Common variation in the NOS1AP gene is associated with druginduced QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia.J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:841-50. [Crossref]

  • [110] van Noord C, Sturkenboom MCJM, Straus SMJM, et al. Non-cardiovascular drugs that inhibit hERG-encoded potassium channels and risk of sudden cardiac death.Heart 2011;97:215-20. [Crossref]

  • [111] van Rees JB, Borleffs CJW, van Welsenes GH, et al. Clinical prediction model for death prior to appropriate therapy in primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients with ischaemic heart disease: the FADES risk score. Heart 2012;98:872-7. [Crossref]

  • [112] Haines DE, Wang Y, Curtis J. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry risk score models for acute procedural complications or death after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.Circulation 2011;123:2069-76. [Crossref]

  • [113] Barsheshet A, Moss AJ, Huang DT, et al. Applicability of a risk score for prediction of the long-term (8-year) benefit of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:2075-9. [Crossref]

  • [114] Bilchick KC, Stukenborg GJ, Kamath S, et al. Prediction of mortality in clinical practice for Medicare patients undergoing defibrillator implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:1647-55. [Crossref]

  • [115] de Haan S, Meijers TA, Knaapen P, et al. Scar size and characteristics assessed by CMR predict ventricular arrhythmias in ischaemic cardiomyopathy: comparison of previously validated models. Heart 2011;97:1951-6. [Crossref]

  • [116] Klem I, Weinsaft JW, Bahnson TD, et al. Assessment of myocardial scarring improves risk stratification in patients evaluated for cardiac defibrillator implantation.J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:408-20. [Crossref]

  • [117] Swerdlow C, Chow T, Das M, et al. Intracardiac electrogram T-wave alternans/variability increases before spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients: a prospective, multi-center study. Circulation 2011;123:1052-60. [Crossref]

  • [118] Forleo GB, Tesauro M, Panattoni G, et al. Impact of continuous intracardiac ST-segment monitoring on mid-term outcomes of ICD-implanted patients with coronary artery disease. Early results of a prospective comparison with conventional ICD outcomes. Heart 2012;98:402-7. [Crossref]

  • [119] Hauser RG, Maisel WH, Friedman PA, et al. Longevity of Sprint Fidelis implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads and risk factors for failure: implications for patient management. Circulation 2011;123:358-63. [Crossref]

  • [120] Birnie DH, Parkash R, Exner DV, et al. Clinical predictors of Fidelis lead failure: report from the Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Device Committee. Circulation 2012;125:1217-25. [Crossref]

  • [121] Parkash R, Thibault B, Sterns L, et al. Sprint Fidelis lead fractures in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy devices: insight from the Resynchronization/ Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure (RAFT) study. Circulation 2012;126:2928-34. [Crossref]

  • [122] Cho EYN, von Känel R, Marten-Mittag B, et al. Determinants and trajectory of phobic anxiety in patients living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Heart 2012;98:806-12. [Crossref]

  • [123] Landolina M, Gasparini M, Lunati M, et al. Long-term complications related to biventricular defibrillator implantation: rate of surgical revisions and impact on survival: insights from the Italian Clinical Service Database.Circulation 2011;123:2526-35. [PubMed] [Crossref]

  • [124] Dewland TA, Pellegrini CN,Wang Y, et al. Dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator selection is associated with increased complication rates and mortality among patients enrolled in the NCDR implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:1007-13. [Crossref]

  • [125] O’Mahony C, Lambiase PD, Quarta G, et al. The longterm survival and the risks and benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Heart 2012;98:116-25. [Crossref]

  • [126] Swerdlow CD, Sachanandani H, Gunderson BD, et al.Preventing overdiagnosis of implantable cardioverterdefibrillator lead fractures using device diagnostics. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;57:2330-9. [Crossref]

  • [127] Moss AJ, Schuger C, Beck CA, et al. Reduction in inappropriate therapy and mortality through ICD programming.N Engl J Med 2012;367:2275-83. [Crossref]

  • [128] Olde Nordkamp LRA, Dabiri Abkenari L, Boersma LVA, et al. The entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: initial clinical experience in a large Dutch cohort. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:1933-9. [Crossref]

  • [129] Jarman JWE, Lascelles K, Wong T, et al. Clinical experience of entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators in children and adults: cause for caution.Eur Heart J 2012;33:1351-9. [Crossref]

  • [130] Lyman S, Sedrakyan A, Do H, et al. Infrequent physician use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators risks patient safety. Heart 2011;97:1655-60. [Crossref]

  • [131] Caldwell J, Moreton N, Khan N, et al. The clinical management of relatives of young sudden unexplained death victims; implantable defibrillators are rarely indicated.Heart 2012;98:631-6. [Crossref]

  • [132] Perkins GD, Brace SJ, Smythe M, et al. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: recent advances in resuscitation and effects on outcome. Heart 2012;98:529-35. [Crossref]

  • [133] Nolan JP, Lyon RM, Sasson C, et al. Advances in the hospital management of patients following an out of hospital cardiac arrest. Heart 2012;98:1201-6. [Crossref]

  • [134] Fothergill RT, Watson LR, Chamberlain D, et al. Increases in survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a five year study. Resuscitation 2013;84:1089-92. [Crossref]

  • [135] Adielsson A, Hollenberg J, Karlsson T, et al. Increase in survival and bystander CPR in out-of-hospital shockable arrhythmia: bystander CPR and female gender are predictors of improved outcome. Experiences from Sweden in an 18-year perspective. Heart 2011;97:1391-6. [Crossref]

  • [136] Weisfeldt ML, Everson-Stewart S, Sitlani C, et al. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias after cardiac arrest in public versus at home. N Engl J Med 2011;364:313-21. [Crossref]

  • [137] Stub D, Smith K, Bray JE, et al. Hospital characteristics are associated with patient outcomes following out-ofhospital cardiac arrest. Heart 2011;97:1489-94. [Crossref]

  • [138] Bardai A, Berdowski J, van der Werf C, et al. Incidence, causes, and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children: a comprehensive, prospective, populationbased study in the Netherlands. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 57:1822-8. [Crossref]

  • [139] Meier P, Baker P, Jost D, et al. Chest compressions before defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a metaanalysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. BMC Med 2010;8:52. [Crossref]

  • [140] Iwami T, Kitamura T, Kawamura T, et al. Chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with public-access defibrillation: a nationwide cohort study. Circulation 2012;126:2844-51. [Crossref]

  • [141] Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T, et al. Conventional and chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders for children who have outof- hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study. Lancet 2010;375:1347-54. [Crossref]

  • [142] Ogawa T, Akahane M, Koike S, et al. Outcomes of chest compression only CPR versus conventional CPR conducted by lay people in patients with out of hospital cardiopulmonary arrest witnessed by bystanders: nationwide population based observational study. BMJ 2011;342:c7106.

About the article

Published Online: 2014-01-29

Published in Print: 2013-12-01



Citation Information: Seminars in Cardiovascular Medicine, ISSN (Online) 1822-7767, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/semcard-2013-0006. Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in