Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica

The Journal of Wroclaw University of Technology

4 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry

Marek Cała / Agnieszka Stopkowicz / Michał Kowalski / Mateusz Blajer / Katarzyna Cyran / Kajetan D’obyrn
Published Online: 2016-04-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sgem-2016-0003


Stability of mining openings requires consideration of a number of factors, such as: geological structure, the geometry of the underground mining workings, mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in stress caused by the influence of neighbouring workings. Long-term prediction and estimation of workings state can be analysed with the use of numerical methods. Application of 3D numerical modelling in stability estimation of workings with complex geometry was described with the example of Crystal Caves in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Preservation of the Crystal Caves reserve is particularly important in view of their unique character and the protection of adjacent galleries which are a part of tourist attraction included in UNESCO list. A detailed 3D model of Crystal Caves and neighbouring workings was built. Application of FLAC3D modelling techniques enabled indication of the areas which are in danger of stability loss. Moreover, the area in which protective actions should be taken as well as recommendations concerning the convergence monitoring were proposed.

Keywords: stability analysis of underground workings; complex geometry and geological structure; 3D numerical modelling; ; Wieliczka Salt Mine


  • [1] Mortazavi A., Hassani F.P., Shabani M.M., A numerical investigation of rock pillar failure mechanism in underground openings, Comput. Geot., 2009, 36, No. 5.Google Scholar

  • [2] Jing L., Hudson J.A., Numerical methods in rock mechanics, Int. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci., 2002, 39, No. 4.Google Scholar

  • [3] Jing L., A review of techniques, advances and outstanding issues in numerical modelling for rock mechanics and rock engineering, Int. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci., 2003, 40, No. 3.Google Scholar

  • [4] Chen L., Duveau G., Poutrel A., Jia Y., Shao J.F., Xie N., Numerical study of the interaction between adjacent galleries in a high-level radioactive waste repository, Int. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci., 2014, 71.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [5] Wang L., Bérest P., Brouard B., Mechanical Behavior of Salt Caverns: Closed-Form Solutions vs Numerical Computations, Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 2015, 48, No. 1.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Wang T., Yang C., Yan X., Li Y., Liu W., Liang C., Li J., Dynamic response of underground gas storage salt cavern under seismic loads. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 2014, No. 43.Google Scholar

  • [7] Zhang G., Wu Y., Wang L., Zhang K., Daemen J.J.K., Liu W., Time-dependent subsidence prediction model and influence factor analysis for underground gas storages in bedded salt formations, Eng. Geol., 2015, No. 187.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [8] Swift G.M., Reddish D.J., Underground excavation in rock salt, Geot. Geol. Eng., 2005, No. 23.Google Scholar

  • [9] Chmura J., Bednarczyk J., Brzeźniak E., Charkot J., Chmura Ł., Lasoń A., Mikoś T., Pawlikowski M.M., Projekt planu ochrony podziemnego rezerwatu przyrody „Groty Kryształowe” w Kopalni Soli Wieliczka, [Conservation plan of underground natural reserve “Crystal Caves” in Wieliczka Salt Mine], Fundacja „Nauka i Tradycje Górnicze”, 2009, (in Polish).Google Scholar

  • [10] Aleksandrowicz Z., (ed.), Crystal Caves in the Wieliczka Salt Mine, Studia Naturae, 2000, No. 46 (2000)Google Scholar

  • [11] Gaweł A., Budowa geologiczna złoża solnego Wieliczka, [Geological structure of Wieliczka Salt Mine], Prace Instytutu Geologicznego 30, 1962, No 3, (in Polish).Google Scholar

  • [12] Kolasa K., Ślączka A., Sedimentary salt megabreccia exposed in the Wieliczka Mine, (Fore Carpathian Depression), Acta Geologorum Polonae, 1985, 35, No. 3/4.Google Scholar

  • [13] Ślączka A., Kolasa K., Resedimented salt in the Northern Carpathians Foredeep, (Wieliczka, Poland), Slovak Geological Magazine, 1997, 3, No. 2.Google Scholar

  • [14] Lamarche J., Structural geology in the Wieliczka salt mine, Internal Report, Wieliczka Salt Mine, 1997.Google Scholar

  • [15] Poborski J., Historyczny rozwój poglądów na budowę geologiczną złoża solnego Wieliczki, [Historical development of ideas about the geological structure of Wileiczka Salt Mine], Studia i Materiały do Dziejów Żup Solnych w Polsce, 1965, No. 1, (in Polish).Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2016-04-18

Published in Print: 2016-03-01

Citation Information: Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 25–32, ISSN (Online) 2083-831X, ISSN (Print) 0137-6365, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sgem-2016-0003.

Export Citation

© 2016 Marek Cała et al., published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in