Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Studia Humana

4 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Towards New Probabilistic Assumptions in Business Intelligence

Andrew Schumann / Andrzej Szelc
Published Online: 2015-01-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sh-2015-0003


One of the main assumptions of mathematical tools in science is represented by the idea of measurability and additivity of reality. For discovering the physical universe additive measures such as mass, force, energy, temperature, etc. are used. Economics and conventional business intelligence try to continue this empiricist tradition and in statistical and econometric tools they appeal only to the measurable aspects of reality. However, a lot of important variables of economic systems cannot be observable and additive in principle. These variables can be called symbolic values or symbolic meanings and studied within symbolic interactionism, the theory developed since George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer. In statistical and econometric tools of business intelligence we accept only phenomena with causal connections measured by additive measures. In the paper we show that in the social world we deal with symbolic interactions which can be studied by non-additive labels (symbolic meanings or symbolic values). For accepting the variety of such phenomena we should avoid additivity of basic labels and construct a new probabilistic method in business intelligence based on non-Archimedean probabilities.

Keywords:: business intelligence; additivity; measurability; non-additive measures; symbolic interactionism; symbolic value; non-Archimedean probabilities


  • 1. Althusser, Louis and Balibar, Étienne. Reading Capital. London: Verso, 2009.Google Scholar

  • 2. Arellano, M. Panel Data Econometrics. Oxford University Press, 2003.Google Scholar

  • 3. Blumer, H.G. George Herbert Mead and Human Conduct. 2004.Google Scholar

  • 4. Blumer, H.G. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. 1969.Google Scholar

  • 5. Bourdieu, P. Acts of Resistance: Against the Tyranny of the Market. New Press, 1999.Google Scholar

  • 6. Bourdieu, P. and L.J.D. Wacquant. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago and London: Univ of Chicago Press, 1992.Google Scholar

  • 7. Bourdieu, P. Language and Symbolic Power. Harvard University Press, 1991.Google Scholar

  • 8. Bourdieu, P The Social Structures of the Economy. Polity 2005.Google Scholar

  • 9. Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. New York: International Publishers, 1988.Google Scholar

  • 10. Davidson, R., J.G. MacKinnon. Econometric Theory and Methods. Oxford University Press, 2004.Google Scholar

  • 11. McPherson, G. Statistics in Scientific Investigation: Its Basis, Application and Interpretation. Springer-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar

  • 12. Mead, G.H. Mind, Self, and Society. Ed. by Charles W. Morris. University of Chicago Press, 1934.Google Scholar

  • 13. Mead, G.H. Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century. Ed. by C. W. Morris. University of Chicago Press, 1936.Google Scholar

  • 14. Mead, G.H. The Philosophy of the Act. Ed. by C.W. Morris et al. University of Chicago Press, 1938.Google Scholar

  • 15. Schumann, A. Unconventional Logics in Decision Making. Rzeszow: WSIiZ, 2014.Google Scholar

  • 16. Wooldridge, J.M. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge MA, MIT Press, 2002.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2015-01-31

Citation Information: Studia Humana, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 11–21, ISSN (Online) 2299-0518, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sh-2015-0003.

Export Citation

© 2015 Andrew Schumann and Andrzej Szelc. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in