Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics

Editor-in-Chief: Face, Timothy L.

See all formats and pricing
More options …

Portuguese language programs in New England: Maintenance and diversification

Juliana Luna Freire / Fernanda Ferreira
Published Online: 2015-08-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/shll-2015-0013


The present study outlines the current Portuguese language offerings in select New England universities and colleges vis-à-vis a call for more specialized heritage learner programs in Portuguese. Building on and garnering theoretical support from more established heritage language programs in Spanish, this study details the learner profiles and goals of existing programs in local educational institutions. The goal is to delineate the gaps and opportunities in Portuguese heritage language programs and to offer suggestions for further research.

Keywords: Portuguese; heritage language; higher education; language loss; language maintenance


  • Beaudrie, Sara. 2011. Spanish heritage language programs: A snapshot of current programs in the southwestern United States. Foreign Language Annals 44(2). 321–337.Google Scholar

  • Beaudrie, Sara. 2012. Research on university-based Spanish heritage language programs. In Sara M. Beaudrie & Marta Fairclough (eds.), Spanish as a heritage language in the United States: The state of the field, 203–222. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar

  • CAL Two-Way Immersion. N.d. http://www.cal.org/twi/ (Accessed April 13, 2015).

  • Carvalho, Ana Maria. 2010. Portuguese in the United States. In Kim Potowski (ed.), Language diversity in the USA, 223–237. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Carvalho, Ana Maria & Antonio J. Bacelar da Silva. 2006. Cross-linguistic influence in L3 acquisition: The case of Spanish-English bilinguals’ acquisition of Portuguese. Foreign Language Annals 39(2). 185–202.Google Scholar

  • Castilho, Ataliba de. 2013. A hora e a vez do português brasileiro. São Paulo: Museo da Língua Portuguesa.Google Scholar

  • Correa, Maite. 2011. Advocating for Critical Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching Spanish as a Heritage Language: Some Considerations. Foreign Language Annals 44(2). 308–320.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Ducar, Cynthia. 2006. (Re)presentations of U.S. Latinos: A critical discourse analysis of Spanish heritage language textbooks. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona dissertation.Google Scholar

  • Ferguson, Charles. A. 1971. Diglossia. In Language and social structures, 232–251. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Ferreira, Fernanda. 2005. That’s not how my grandmother says it: Portuguese heritage learners in southeast Massachusetts. Hispania 88(4). 848–862.Google Scholar

  • Ferreira, Fernanda. 2007. Portuguese heritage language learners: Proficiency levels and sociolinguistic profiles. Portuguese Language Journal 2. http://www.ensinoportugues.org/archives/.Google Scholar

  • Ferreira, Fernanda. 2010. Creating and sustaining a program of study in Portuguese. Portuguese Language Journal 4. http://www.ensinoportugues.org/archives/.Google Scholar

  • Ferreira, Fernanda. 2013. That’s exactly how my grandmother says it: Best practices and dialectal variation in the Portuguese classroom. Paper presented at the Portuguese Linguistics in the United States conference, University of Georgia. Athens, GA, 14–16 November.

  • Ferreira, Fernanda, & Viviane Gontijo. 2011. Why, who and where? Portuguese language learners and types of motivation. Portuguese Language Journal 5. http://www.ensinoportugues.org/archives/.Google Scholar

  • Figueiredo, Vanda. 2011. Teaching Portuguese to Brazilian students at a secondary school in the U.S.A. Portuguese Language Journal 5. http://www.ensinoportugues.org/archives/.Google Scholar

  • Goldberg, David, Dennis Looney & Natalia Lusin. 2015. Enrollments in languages other than English in United States institutions of higher education, fall 2013. Modern Language Association web publication. http://www.mla.org/pdf/2013_enrollment_survey.pdf.

  • Jouët-Pastré, Clémence. 2011. Mapping the world of the heritage language learners of Portuguese: Results from a national survey at the college level. Portuguese Language Journal 5. http://www.ensinoportugues.org/archives/.Google Scholar

  • Jouët-Pastré, Clémence & Leticia Braga. 2005. Community-based learning: A window into the Portuguese-speaking community in New England. Hispania 88(4). 863–872.Google Scholar

  • Lira, Maria de Lourde Brasil & Solange de Azambuja Serpa. 2011. Portuguese as a heritage language in public and private K-12 schools in Massachusetts. Portuguese Language Journal 5. http://www.ensinoportugues.org/archives/.Google Scholar

  • Luna Freire, Juliana. 2013. Portuguese as a heritage language: Registers and pedagogical practice. Paper presented at the Portuguese Linguistics in the United States conference, University of Georgia. Athens, GA, 14–16 November.

  • Luna Freire, Juliana & Tacila Bezerra. 2013. Motivation for learning Spanish and Portuguese: A comparative study. Paper presented at the American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Language conference, Orlando, FL, 22/24 November.

  • Lynch, Andrew. 2012. Key concepts for theorizing Spanish as a heritage language. In Sara M. Beaudrie & Marta Fairclough (eds.), Spanish as a heritage language in the United States: The state of the field, 203–222. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar

  • Martínez, Glenn. 2003. Classroom-based dialect awareness in heritage language instruction: A critical applied linguistic approach. Heritage Language Journal 1. 1–14.Google Scholar

  • McQuillan, Jeff. 1996. How should heritage languages be taught?: The effects of a free voluntary reading program. Foreign Language Annals 29(1). 56–72.Google Scholar

  • Milleret, Margo. 2012. Portuguese study in higher education in the United States. Hispania 95(1). 135–150.Google Scholar

  • Moroni, Andreia & Juliana Azevedo Gomes. 2015. O Português como Língua de Herança hoje e o trabalho da Associação de Pais de Brasileirinhos na Catalunha. Revista de Estudios Brasileños 2(2). 21–35.Google Scholar

  • Mota, Kátia. 2002. Políticas de educação bilíngue na escola e na família: cenários de competitividade linguística. 25th Reunião da Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Educação (ANPED), Caxambu, MG.

  • Mota, Kátia. 2006. Educação bilíngue: a escuta da voz da comunidade. Revista Intercâmbio 15. n.p.Google Scholar

  • Mulcahy, Maria Gloria. 2004. Portuguese-speaking groups in New Bedford and Fall River: Old-timers and newcomers. Paper presented at the New Immigrants in Urban New England Workshop, Brown University, Providence, RI, April 16.

  • Online Collection of National Heritage Language Program Profiles. nd. http://www.cal.org/heritage/profiles/portuguese.html.

  • Peyton, Joy Kreeft, Donald Ranard & Scott McGinnis (eds.), 2001. Heritage Languages in America: Preserving a national resource. Washington, DC & McHenry, IL: The Center for Applied Linguistics & Delta Systems.

  • Pires, Acrisio & Jason Rothman. 2009. Disentangling sources of incomplete acquisition: An explanation of competence divergence across heritage grammars. International Journal of Bilingualism 13(2). 1–28.Google Scholar

  • Potowski, Kim. 2002. Experiences of Spanish heritage speakers in university foreign language courses and implications for teacher training. ADFL Bulletin 33, 35–42.Google Scholar

  • Rubinstein-Ávila, Eliane. 2002. Problematizing the “dual” in a dual-immersion program: A portrait. Linguistics and Education 13(1). 65–87.Google Scholar

  • Ruiz, Richard. 1984. Orientations in language planning. In Sandra Lee McKay & Sau-ling Cynthia Wong (eds.), Language diversity: Problem or resource?, 15–34. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar

  • Ruiz, Richard. 1990. Official languages and language planning. In Karen L. Adams & Daniel T. Brink (eds.), Perspectives on official English: The campaign for English as the official language of the USA, 11–26. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Sales, Teresa & Márcia Loureiro. 2004. Imigrantes brasileiros adolescentes e de segunda geração em Massachusetts, EUA. Revista Bras. Est. Pop., Campinas 21(2). 217–239.Google Scholar

  • Silva, Gláucia. 2010. On starting a course sequence for heritage learners of Portuguese. Portuguese Language Journal 4. http://www.ensinoportugues.org/archives/

  • Silva, Gláucia. 2011. Textbook activities among heritage and non-heritage Portuguese learners. Hispania 94(4). 734–750.Google Scholar

  • Soares, Sofia. 2012. Português língua de herança: Da teoria à prática. 2o ciclo de estudos: Dissertação/relatório/projeto/IPP. Porto: Faculdade de Letras, Universidade do Porto.

  • Souza, Ana. 2010. Migrant languages in a multi-ethnic scenario: Brazilian Portuguese speakers in London. Portuguese Studies 26(1). 79–93.Google Scholar

  • Souza, Heloisa. 2000. Language loss and language gain in the Brazilian community: The role of schools and families. In Zeynep F. Beykont (ed.), Lifting every voice: Pedagogy and politics of bilingualism, 7–20. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education.Google Scholar

  • Teranishi, Robert, Carola Suárez-Orozco & Marcelo Suárez-Orozco. 2011. Immigrants in community colleges. Future of Children 21(1). 153–169.Google Scholar

  • U.S. Census Bureau. 2012. 2007–2001 American Community Survey: New England. https://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/language/data/language_map.html.

  • Valdés, Guadalupe. 2005. Bilingualism, heritage language learners, and SLA research: Opportunities lost or seized? Modern Language Journal 89(3). 410–426.Google Scholar

  • Valença da Silva, Andreza. 2014. Maintaining Brazilian Portuguese as a heritage language in a bilingual French-English environment. Montreal, Canada: Concordia University MA thesis.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2015-08-25

Published in Print: 2015-09-01

Citation Information: Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 357–373, ISSN (Online) 2199-3386, ISSN (Print) 1939-0238, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/shll-2015-0013.

Export Citation

©2015 by De Gruyter Mouton.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in