Simpson JY. On a new anaesthetic agent more efficient than sulfuric ether. Lancet 1847;2:549–50.Google Scholar
Long CW. An account of the first use of sulfuric ether by inhalation as an anaesthetic in surgical operations. Southern Med Surg J 1849;5:5–13.Google Scholar
Sims JM. The discovery of anesthesia. Va Med Monthly 1877;4:19–41.Google Scholar
MacLeod GHB. Notes on the surgery of the war in the Crimea with remarks on the treatment of gunshot wounds. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott and Co; 1862.Google Scholar
Baudens L La. Guerre de Crimeé, les Campements, les Abris, les Ambulances, et les Hospitaux. Paris: Germer Balliére; 1858.Google Scholar
Albin MS. The use of anesthetic agents during the Civil War, 1861–1865.Pharm Hist 2000;40:99–114.Google Scholar
The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, Prepared under the direction of Joseph K. Barnes, Surgeon General United States Army, by George A. Otis, Surgeon, United States Army, and D. L. Huntington, Surgeon, United States Army (Surgical volume, 3 parts); J.J. Woodward, Surgeon, United States Army and Charles Smart, Surgeon, United States Army (Medical Volume, 3 Parts), Second Issue. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1883.
Livermore TL. Numbers and Losses in the Civil War in America: 1861–1865, reproduction from the original printed in 1900. Civil War Centennial Series. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; 1957.Google Scholar
Pernick MS. A calculus of suffering: pain, professionalism and anesthesia in nineteenth century America. New York: Columbia University Press; 1985.Google Scholar
Porter JB. Medical and surgical notes of campaigns in the war with Mexico during the years 1845,1846, 1847 and 1848.Am J Med Sci 1852;47:2–30.Google Scholar
Stevens CA. Wounded and a prisoner. In: Berdan’s United States Sharpshooters in the Army of the Potomac, 1861–1865. St. Paul: Price McGill Co; 1892.Google Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2017-12-29
Conflict of interestNone declared.