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About the article
Published Online: 2016-10-01
Published in Print: 2016-10-01
Conflicts of interest: Dr. Langford reports personal fees from Grunenthal, grants and personal fees from Napp/Mundipharma, personal fees from Pfizer, personal fees from Astrazeneca, personal fees from BioQuiddity, personal fees from The Medicines Co, all outside the submitted work. No other conflicts of interests declared from remaining authors.
Funding sources: None declared.
Perspective: This review provides further support for an association between chronic pain and cardiovascular disease that appears to be dose-dependent, but available data does not yet allow us to conclude that these associations are causal. These findings highlight the potentially harmful biological consequences of chronic pain.
Author contributions: Dr Fayaz was the principal author of the article, but all remaining authors contributed to the design, write-up and review of the paper. All authors have read and approved the paper in the format submitted for publication.