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Scandinavian Journal of Pain

Official Journal of the Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain

Editor-in-Chief: Werner, Mads

CiteScore 2018: 0.85

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.494
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.427

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Volume 16, Issue 1


Using education and support strategies to improve the way nurses assess regular and transient pain – A quality improvement study of three hospitals

Anna Peterson
  • Pain and Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Siw Carlfjord
  • Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Anne Schaller
  • Pain and Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
  • Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Björn Gerdle
  • Pain and Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
  • Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Britt Larsson
  • Corresponding author
  • Pain and Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
  • Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-07-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2017.01.013


Background and aims

Systematic and regular pain assessment has been shown to improve pain management. Well-functioning pain assessments require using strategies informed by well-established theory. This study evaluates documented pain assessments reported in medical records and by patients, including reassessment using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) after patients receive rescue medication.


Documentation surveys (DS) and patient surveys (PS) were performed at baseline (BL), after six months, and after 12 months in 44 in-patient wards at the three hospitals in Östergötland County, Sweden. Nurses and nurse assistants received training on pain assessment and support. The Knowledge to Action Framework guided the implementation of new routines.


According to DS pain assessment using NRS, pain assessment increased significantly: from 7% at baseline to 36% at 12 months (p < 0.001). For PS, corresponding numbers were 33% and 50% (p < 0.001). According to the PS, the proportion of patients who received rescue medication and who had been reassessed increased from 73% to 86% (p = 0.003). The use of NRS to document pain assessment after patients received rescue medication increased significantly (4% vs. 17%; p < 0.001).


After implementing education and support strategies, systematic pain assessment increased, an encouraging finding considering the complex contexts of in-patient facilities. However, the achieved assessment levels and especially reassessments related to rescue medication were clinically unsatisfactory. Future studies should include nursing staff and physicians and increase interactivity such as providing online education support. A discrepancy between documented and reported reassessment in association with given rescue medication might indicate that nurses need better ways to provide pain relief.


The fairly low level of patient-reported pain via NRS and documented use of NRS before and 12 months after the educational programme stresses the need for education on pain management in nursing education. Implementations differing from traditional educational attempts such as interactive implementations might complement educational programmes given at the work place. Standardized routines for pain management that include the possibility for nurses to deliver pain medication within well-defined margins might improve pain management and increase the use of pain assessments. Further research is needed that examines the large discrepancy between patient-reported pain management and documentation in the medical recording system of transient pain.

Keywords: Pain; Assessment; Documentation; Observation; Implementation


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About the article

Pain and Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

Received: 2016-11-10

Revised: 2017-01-30

Accepted: 2017-01-31

Published Online: 2017-07-01

Published in Print: 2017-07-01

Funding: This study was supported by a grant from the research funds of the Östergöland County Council. The funder had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, preparation of the manuscript, or decision to publish.

Conflict of interest: None.

Citation Information: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 15–21, ISSN (Online) 1877-8879, ISSN (Print) 1877-8860, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2017.01.013.

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