Tesarz J, Schuster AK, Hartmann M, Gerhardt A, Eich W. Pain perception in athletes compared to normally active controls: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Pain 2012;153:1253–62.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Raudenbush B, Canter RJ, Corley N, Grayhem R, Coon J, Lilley S, Meyer B, Wilson I. Pain threshold and tolerance differences among intercollegiate athletes: Implications of past sports injuries and willingness to compete among sports teams. N Am J Psychol 2012;14:85–91.Google Scholar
Tesarz J, Gerhardt A, Schommer K, Treede R, Eich W. Alterations in endogenous pain modulation in endurance athletes: an experimental study using quantitative sensory testing and the cold-pressor task. Pain 2013;154:1022–9.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Smith BW, Tooley EM, Montague EQ, Robinson AE, Cosper CJ, Mullins PG. The role of resilience and purpose in life in habituation to heat and cold pain. J Pain 2009;10:493–500.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Byerly PN, Worrell T, Gahimer J, Domholdt E. Rehabilitation compliance in an athletic training environment. J Athl Train 1994;29:352–5.Google Scholar
Buckworth J, Dishman RK, O’Connor PJ, Tomporowski PD. Exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2013. p. 341–2.Google Scholar
Clark-Carter D. Quantitative psychological research: a student’s handbook. Hove: Psychology Press; 2008.Google Scholar
Bourgeois AE, Meyers MC, LeUnes AD. The sport inventory for pain: empirical and confirmatory factorial validity. J Sport Behav 2009;32:19–35.Google Scholar
Meyers MC, Bourgeois AE, Stewart S, LeUnes A. Predicting pain response in athletes: development and assessment of the sports inventory for pain. J Sport Exerc Psychol 1992;14:249–61.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bae Y, Lee S. Analgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current on experimental ischemic pain models: frequencies of 50 Hz and 100 Hz. J Phys Ther Sci 2014;26:1945–8.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Field A. Discovering statistics using SPSS. 3rd ed. London: Sage; 2009.Google Scholar
Rainville P, Feine JS, Bushnell C, Duncan GH. A psychophysical comparison of sensory and affective responses to four modalities of experimental pain. Somatosens Mot Res 1992;9:265–77.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Lee JE, Watson D, Frey Law LA. Lower order pain-related constructs are more predictive of cold pressor pain ratings than higher-order personality traits. J Pain 2010;7:681–91.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Maeoka H, Hiyamizu M, Matsuo A, Morioka S. The influence of repeated pain stimulation on the emotional aspect of pain: a preliminary study in healthy volunteers. J Pain Res 2015;8:431–6.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Kress JL, Statler T. A naturalistic investigation of former Olympic cyclists’ cognitive strategies for coping with exertion pain during performance. J Sport Behav 2007;30:428–52.Google Scholar
Johnson MH, Stewart J, Humphries SA, Chamove AS. Marathon runners’ reaction to potassium iontophoretic experimental pain: pain tolerance, pain threshold, coping and self-efficacy. Eur J Pain 2011;16:767–74.Web of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Egan S. Acute-pain tolerance among athletes. Can J Sport Sci 1987;12:175–8.Google Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2017-07-01
Published in Print: 2017-07-01
Ethical issues: All participants provided informed consent to participate and the study was approved by the University Research Ethics Committee. The study was not registered.
Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of interest: There are no conflicts of interest.