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Scandinavian Journal of Pain

Official Journal of the Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain

Editor-in-Chief: Breivik, Harald

CiteScore 2017: 0.84

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.401
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.452

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Volume 17, Issue 1


Long-term treatment in chronic noncancer pain: Results of an observational study comparing opioid and nonopioid therapy

Karin Elsesser / Thomas Cegla
Published Online: 2017-10-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2017.07.005


Background and aims

Recent studies reveal high prevalence rates of patients receiving long-term opioids. However, well designed studies assessing effectiveness with longer than 3 months follow-up are sparse. The present study investigated the outcomes of long-term opioid therapy compared to nonopioid treatment in CNCP patients with respect to measures of pain, functional disability, psychological wellbeing, and quality of life (QoL).


Three hundred and thirty three consecutive patients at our pain clinic were included and divided into patients with continuous opioid treatment for at least 3 months (51%) and patients receiving nonopioid analgesics (49%). Further, outcome of different doses of opioid (<120 mg vs. >120 mg morphine equivalents) and differences between high and low potency opioids were examined.


The opioid and nonopioid groups did not differ with regard to pain intensity or satisfaction with analgesic. Patients with continuous opioids treatment reported higher neuropathic like pain, longer duration of pain disorder, lower functional level, wellbeing, and physical QoL in comparison to patients receiving nonopioid analgesics. Higher opioid doses were associated with male gender, intake of high potency opioids and depression but there were no differences with regard to pain relief or improvement of functional level between high and low doses. Similarly, patients on high potency opioids reported more psychological impairment than patients on low potency opioids but no advantage with regard to pain relief. Overall, remaining level of pain, functional disability and poor QoL were quite high irrespective of the analgesic used or opioid dosing.


In the long-term no clear advantage of opioid vs. non-opioid analgesics could be revealed. In terms of remaining pain intensity, functional disability and quality of life, treatment with pain medication proved insufficient. Additionally, with higher doses of opioids the benefit to risk relationship becomes worse and patients on high potency opioids reported more psychological impairment than patients on low potency opioids but no advantage with regard to pain relief.


Our results raise questions about the long-term effectiveness of analgesic treatment regimens irrespective of analgesics type employed and call for more multidisciplinary treatment strategies.

Keywords: Long-term opioid therapy; Chronic pain; Quality of life; Functional outcome; Psychological wellbeing


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About the article

Sankt Josef Krankenhaus, Clinic of Pain Medicine, Bergstr. 6-12, 42105 Wuppertal, Germany. angelika.vaupel@cellitinnen.de

Received: 2016-12-21

Revised: 2017-06-29

Accepted: 2017-07-05

Published Online: 2017-10-01

Published in Print: 2017-10-01

Ethical issues: The study was approved by the institutional ethic committee of the University of Wuppertal.

Conflicts of interest: T.C. has received financial support and provided consultant services for the following: Astellas, Grünenthal, Pharmallergan. K.E. has no conflicts of interest to declare.

Funding: This research was supported by funds from Mundipharma GmbH. The funders were not involved in the design and conduction of the study, collection, analysis, interpretation of the data, the writing of the report, and in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Citation Information: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 87–98, ISSN (Online) 1877-8879, ISSN (Print) 1877-8860, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2017.07.005.

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