Ephraim PL, Wegener ST, MacKenzie EJ, Dillingham TR, Pezzin LE. Phantom pain, residual limb pain, and back pain in amputees: results of a national survey. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1910–9.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Austin PJ, Moalem-Taylor G. The neuro-immune balance in neuropathic pain: involvement of inflammatory immune cells, immune-like glial cells and cytokines. J Neuroimmunol 2010;229:26–50.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Chamessian A, Van de Ven T, Buchheit T, Hsia HL, McDuffie M, Gamazon ER, Walsh C, Bruehl S, Buckenmaier C 3rd, Shaw A. Differential expression of systemic inflammatory mediators in amputees with chronic residual limb pain. Pain 2017;158:68–74.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Hou Q, Barr T, Gee L, Vickers J, Wymer J, Borsani E, Rodella L, Getsios S, Burdo T, Eisenberg E, Guha U, Lavker R, Kessler J, Chittur S, Fiorino D, Rice F, Albrecht P. Keratinocyte expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide beta: implications for neuropathic and inflammatory pain mechanisms. Pain 2011;152:2036–51.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Shepherd AJ, Copits BA, Mickle AD, Karlsson P, Kadunganattil S, Haroutounian S, Tadinada SM, de Kloet AD, Valtcheva MV, McIlvried LA, Sheahan TD, Jain S, Ray PR, Usachev YM, Dussor G, Krause EG, Price TJ, Gereau RWt, Mohapatra DP. Angiotensin II triggers peripheral macrophage-to-sensory neuron redox crosstalk to elicit pain. J Neurosci 2018;38:7032–57.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Lauria G, Hsieh ST, Johansson O, Kennedy WR, Leger JM, Mellgren SI, Nolano M, Merkies IS, Polydefkis M, Smith AG, Sommer C, Valls-Sole J, European Federation of Neurological S, Peripheral Nerve S. European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guideline on the use of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society. Eur J Neurol 2010;17:903–12, e44–9.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Bechakra M, Nieuwenhoff MD, van Rosmalen J, Groeneveld GJ, Scheltens-de Boer M, Sonneveld P, van Doorn PA, de Zeeuw CI, Jongen JL. Clinical, electrophysiological, and cutaneous innervation changes in patients with bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy reveal insight into mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Mol Pain 2018;14:1744806918797042.Web of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Martinez V, Uceyler N, Ben Ammar S, Alvarez JC, Gaudot F, Sommer C, Bouhassira D, Fletcher D. Clinical, histological, and biochemical predictors of postsurgical neuropathic pain. Pain 2015;156:2390–8.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Springer JS, Karlsson P, Madsen CS, Johnsen B, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS, Nikolajsen L. Functional and structural assessment of patients with and without persistent pain after thoracotomy. Eur J Pain 2017;21:238–49.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Bouhassira D, Attal N, Fermanian J, Alchaar H, Gautron M, Masquelier E, Rostaing S, Lanteri-Minet M, Collin E, Grisart J, Boureau F. Development and validation of the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. Pain 2004;108:248–57.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Karlsson P, Moller AT, Jensen TS, Nyengaard JR. Epidermal nerve fiber length density estimation using global spatial sampling in healthy subjects and neuropathy patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2013;72:186–93.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Karlsson P, Nyengaard JR, Polydefkis M, Jensen TS. Structural and functional assessment of skin nerve fibres in small-fibre pathology. Eur J Pain 2015;19:1059–70.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Karlsson P, Porretta-Serapiglia C, Lombardi R, Jensen TS, Lauria G. Dermal innervation in healthy subjects and small fiber neuropathy patients: a stereological reappraisal. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2013;18:48–53.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2019-04-29
Published in Print: 2019-07-26
Research funding: The study was funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark (ID: DFF-4183-00311) and supported by the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. P. Karlsson is funded by the International Diabetic Neuropathy Consortium (IDNC), which is supported by a Novo Nordisk Foundation Challenge Programme grant (NNF14OC0011633) and a research grant by the Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF18OC0052301).
Conflict of interest: L. Nikolajsen has previously received honoraria for serving on Grünenthal advisory boards and speakers’ panels. P. Karlsson receives honoraria for consultancy for Grünenthal, unrelated to this work. N. Buch has no conflict of interest to declare.
Informed consent: Informed consent has been obtained from all individuals included in this study.
Ethical approval: The study got ethical approval from the Regional Research Ethics Committee of Central Denmark and the Danish Data Protection Agency.
Author’s contributions: All authors contributed to planning of the study, interpretation of results, and writing of the manuscript. Nina Buch examined the patients and took the skin biopsies, and Páll Karlsson stained and analysed the skin biopsies.
Citation Information: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 623–627, ISSN (Online) 1877-8879, ISSN (Print) 1877-8860, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sjpain-2019-0042.