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Scandinavian Journal of Pain

Official Journal of the Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain

Editor-in-Chief: Breivik, Harald

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1877-8879
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Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric properties of the Hausa version of the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire in patients with low back pain

Aminu A. Ibrahim
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, P.M.B 3011, Kano State, Nigeria
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/ Mukadas O. Akindele
  • Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria
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/ Bashir Kaka
  • Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria
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/ Bashir Bello
  • Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria
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Published Online: 2018-11-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sjpain-2018-0303

Abstract

Background and aims

The Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) is the most widely used self-reported measure of fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity in low back pain (LBP). However, there is no Hausa version for use in patients with LBP. This study aimed to translate, cross-culturally adapt, and test the psychometric properties of the Hausa version of the FABQ in patients with LBP.

Methods

The Hausa form of FABQ was developed using a forward-backward translation procedure according to recommended guidelines. The pre-final version of the questionnaire was pre-tested on 10 patients with acute LBP and 10 patients with chronic LBP. Psychometric testing was performed in 70 patients with acute LBP and 130 patients with chronic LBP. Reliability was assessed using internal consistency (Cronbach α) and test-retest reliability through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis and divergent validity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient). Responsiveness was also investigated on 40 patients with chronic LBP.

Results

The Hausa version of the FABQ was successfully translated and proved to be well-understood. The internal consistency was adequate for the questionnaire (0.773) and its physical activity (0.816) and work (0.606) subscales. Test-retest reliability was excellent with an ICC value of 0.928 for the questionnaire and values of 0.901 and 0.863 for the physical activity and work subscales, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure in both acute and chronic LBP samples explaining 66.4% and 58.6% of the total variance, respectively. The first factor represents fear-avoidance beliefs due to work, the second factor represents fear-avoidance beliefs due to physical activity whereas the third factor represents the fear that pain aggravates due to work. Divergent validity showed moderate to weak correlation between the questionnaire and pain intensity (r=0.502), disability (r=0.415), lumbopelvic motion (r=0.00). The physical activity and work subscales weakly correlated (r=0.280). The effect size and standardized response mean were moderate to small with the work subscale having the lowest effect size (0.34) and standardized response mean (0.34) values. The MDC of the questionnaire was 5.4 points. The questionnaire had no ceiling or floor effects.

Conclusions

The FABQ was successfully translated into Hausa and cross-culturally adapted with acceptable psychometric properties similar to those of existing versions. The results suggest that the Hausa FABQ can be used to evaluate fear-avoidance beliefs about LBP in Hausa-speaking population for both clinical and research purposes.

Keywords: cross-cultural adaptation; Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire; Hausa; low back pain; psychometric properties; translation

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About the article

Received: 2018-08-24

Revised: 2018-10-11

Accepted: 2018-10-22

Published Online: 2018-11-09


Authors’ statements

Research funding: This study received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Conflict of interest: The authors had no conflicts of interest to declare in relation to this article.

Informed consent: Written informed consent was obtained from all respondents after receiving written and oral information about the study.

Ethical approval: This study got ethical approval from the Health Research Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health Kano State.


Citation Information: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 20180303, ISSN (Online) 1877-8879, ISSN (Print) 1877-8860, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sjpain-2018-0303.

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