Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Slovak Journal of Political Sciences

The Journal of University of Saint Cyril and Metodius in Trnava

4 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

The EU Integration Discourse in the Energy Relations with Russia

Lukáš Tichý
Published Online: 2016-01-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sjps-2016-0004


The energy issue is a long-term one of the most discussed, controversial topics in relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The intention of the present article is an attempt to overcome the largely non-discursive and in the security conditions anchored way of looking at the energy interaction of the EU and the RF and through an integration discourse to analyze EU energy relations with Russia in the years 2004 - 2014. In the theoretical level, the article is based on a critical constructivism, which in relation to the discourse as the main concept reflects a number of fundamental knowledge. At the methodological level, the article is based on the discourse analysis as a basic methodological tool through which the author examines the EU text documents.

Keywords: European Union; Russian Federation; integration discourse; critical constructivism; discourse analysis; energy


  • AALTO, P. ed., 2008. The EU-Russian Energy Dialogue: Europe’s Future Energy Security. Ashgate: University of Tampere. ISBN 978-0-7546-4808-6.Google Scholar

  • ADLER, E. 1997. Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics. European Journal of International Relations. vol. 3, no., pp. 319-363.Google Scholar

  • BAGHAD, G. 2006. Europe´s Energy Security: Challenges and Oportunities. International Affairs. vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 961 - 975.Google Scholar

  • BELIKOVA, M. A.2013. Razvitie otnošenij meždu Rossijej i Evosojuzom v oblasti postavok gaza v XXI veke. [online]. Moskva: Vysokaja škola ekonomiki, 2013 [cit. 2015-06-24]. Dostupné na http://goo.gl/bhwLUB.Google Scholar

  • BOYATZIS, R. E. 1998. Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, London, & New Delhi: SAGE Publications. ISBN-13: 978-0761909613.Google Scholar

  • BÖHME, D. 2011. EU-Russia Energy Relations: What Chance for Solutions? A Focus on the Natural Gas Sector. [online]. Potsdam: Iniversitätverlag Potsdam, 2011 [cit. 2015-06-24]. Dostupné na http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2011/5021/pdf/boehme_diss.pdf.Google Scholar

  • BRAUN, V. a CLARKE, V. 2006. Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. vol. 15, no. 2, p. 77-101.Google Scholar

  • BUŠUEV, B. B. ed., 2003. Enegetika Rossii. Strategija Razvitija. Naučnoe obosnovanie energetičeskoj politiki. Moskva: Minenergo Rossii. ISBN 5-98420-003-1.Google Scholar

  • BUŠUEV, B. B. a kol., 2007. Mirovaja energetika: Sostojanie, problemy, perspektivy. Moskva: IAC Energia. ISBN 5-98420-022-8.Google Scholar

  • DIAS, V. A. 2013. The EU and Russia: Competing Discourses, Practices and Interests in the Shared Neighbourhood. Perspectives on European Politics and Society. vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 256-271.Google Scholar

  • EMELJANOVA, N. N.2009. Rossija i Evrosojuz. Soperničesvo i partnerstvo. Meždunarodnue otnošenija. ISBN-13: 978-5713313579.Google Scholar

  • FIALA, V. 2007. Současné neracionalistické evropské teoretické koncepty. In FIALA, V. a kol.: Teoretické a metodologické problémy evropské integrace. Olomouc: Periplum, pp. 178-212, ISBN 978-80-86624-37-2.Google Scholar

  • GILBERT, M. 2011. European Integration: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN-13: 978-0742566644.Google Scholar

  • HAJER, M. 1993. Discourse Coalitions and the Institutionalisation of Practice: The Case of Acid Rain in Great Britain. In: Fischer, F. - Forester, J. (eds.). The Argumentative Turn in Policy Analysis and Planning. London: Duke University Press Books, pp. 43-67. ISBN-13: 978-0822313724.Google Scholar

  • HAUKKALA, H 2008. The EU´s Common Strategy on Russia: Four Lessons Learned About Consensus Decision-Making in Foreign Policy. European Foreign Affairs Review. vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 317-331.Google Scholar

  • HOPF, T. 1998. The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory. International Security. vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 171-200.Google Scholar

  • HOWARTH, D., TORFLING, J. eds., 2005. Discourse Theory in European Politics. Identity, Policy and Governance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-1719-1.Google Scholar

  • HYNEK, N. a STŘÍTECKÝ, V. 2010a. Český diskurz o protiraketové obraně a národní zájem. Mezinárodní vztahy. vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 5-32.Google Scholar

  • HYNEK, N. - STŘÍTECKÝ, V.2010b. Energetická bezpečnost podle českých atlantistů. In: DRULÁK, P. - STŘÍTECKÝ, V. (eds.): Hledání českých zájmů. Mezinárodní bezpečnost. Praha: Ústav mezinárodních vztahů, pp. 80-101. ISBN 978-80-86506-86-9.Google Scholar

  • CHO, Y. Ch. 2009. Conventional and Critical Constructivist Approaches to National Security: An Analytical Survey. The Korean Journal of International Relations. vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 75-102.Google Scholar

  • JOHNSTONE, B. 2012. Discourse Analysis (Introducing Linguistics). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN-13: 978-1405144278.Google Scholar

  • KARAIVANOVA, S. 2012. EU‘s Normative and Securitization Discourse in the Energy Sector. Contradicting or Complementary Discourses? Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam, 66 p.Google Scholar

  • KEOHANE, R. O. a NYE, J. S. (1973. Power and interdependence. Survival. vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 158-165.Google Scholar

  • KHASSON, V. 2009. Discourses and Interests in EU-Russia Energy Relations. Leuven: Institute for International and European Policy.Google Scholar

  • KRATOCHVÍL, P. 2008. Teorie evropské integrace. Praha: Portál. ISBN 978-80-7367-467-0.Google Scholar

  • KRATOCHVÍL, P. a DRULÁK, P. a kol., 2009. Encyklopedie mezinárodních vztahů. Praha: Ústav mezinárodních vztahů. ISBN 978-80-7367-469-4.Google Scholar

  • KRATOCHVÍL, P. a TICHÝ, L. 2010. Diskurz Evropské unie o energetických vztazích s Ruskou federací. Politologický časopis. vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 95-112.Google Scholar

  • KRATOCHVÍL, P. a TICHÝ, L. 2013. EU and Russian Discourse on Energy Relations. Energy Policy. vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 391-406.Google Scholar

  • KURZE, K. 2010. The Changing Discourse of Energy Security. A New Impetus for Energy Policy Integration in the European Union. University of Osnabrueck: Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence in European Studies.Google Scholar

  • KUZEMKO, C. 2014. Ideas, Power and Change: Explaining EU-Russia Energy Relations. Journal of European Public Policy, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 58-75.Google Scholar

  • LIUTHO, K., ed., 2009. The EU-Russia Gas Connection: Pipes, Politics and Problems. Turku: Pan-European Institute.Google Scholar

  • MACHNAČ, I. 2013. „Razvitie energetičeskovo dialoga Rossijskoj Federacii I Evropejskovo sojuza“. In: žurnal Meždunarodnovo prava i meždunarodnych otnošenij [online], 2013, č. 4. [cit. 2015-06-24]. Dostupné na http://evolutio.info/content/view/2124/235/.Google Scholar

  • MANNERS, I. 2002. Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms? Journal of Common Market Studies vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 235-258.Google Scholar

  • MILOV, V. 2008. Russia and the West - The energy factor. [online]. Institute français des relations internationales + Center for Strategic and International Studies. [cit. 2015-06-06]. Dostupné na http://www.policypointers.org/Page/View/8005.Google Scholar

  • PHILLIPS, N. a HARDY, C. 2002. Discourse Analysis: Investigating Processes of Social Construction. London: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-2361-9.Google Scholar

  • PRILL, M. A. 2012. The European Union and Russian Energy Politics. External Energy Relations and Interdependence between the European Union and Russia. München: AVM. ISBN 978-3-86924-297-2Google Scholar

  • RICE, P. L. a EZZY, D. 1999. Qualitative research methods: a health focus. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 0 195 50610 3.Google Scholar

  • ROMANOVA, T. 2007. “Tretii’ paket” i budushchee “Gazproma”. Rossiia v global’noi’ politike. vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 69-82.Google Scholar

  • SEARLE, J. R. 1979. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9780521313933.Google Scholar

  • SHERR, J. 2010. The Russia-EU Energy Relationship: Getting it Right. The International Spectator, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 55-68.Google Scholar

  • SIMMERL, G. 2011. Critical Constructivist Perspective on Global Multi-Level Governance. Discursive Struggles Among Multiple Actors in a Globalized Political Space. Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin.Google Scholar

  • TICHÝ, L. a KRATOCHVÍL, P. 2014. The EU-Russia Energy Relations under the Prism of the Political Discourse. Perspectives. vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 5-32.Google Scholar

  • YOUNGS, R. 2009. Energy Security. Europe´s New Foreign Policy Challenge. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN-13: 978-0415502733.Google Scholar

  • ZEHFUSS, M. 2002. Constructivism in International Relations: The Politics of Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN-13: 978-052189466. ASHTON, C. 2008. Foreign investment, strategic industries, and protectionism. EU-Russia Industrialists Round Table, SPEECH/08/613, Cannes, 13 November 2008.Google Scholar

  • ASHTON, C. 2010. Conclusions of the EU/Russia Summit (31 May - 1 June) (debate), European Parliament, Strasbourg, 1 June 2010.Google Scholar

  • ASHTON, C. 2011. Speech of High Representative Catherine Ashton on the EURussia Summit, European Parliament, Strasbourg, 13 December 2011.Google Scholar

  • ASHTON, C. 2013. EU to review Syrian arms embargo with regard to progress with U.S.-Russian peace conference initiative, Interfax, 3 June 2013.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J. M. 2006a A European strategy for energy: closing speech. Conferência DN Lisboa, SPEECH/06/649, Lisabon, 30 October 2006.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J. M. 2006b. Opening speech of the External Energy Conference by EU Commission President Barroso. UN forum, Brussels, 20 November 2006.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J. M. 2007a. Energizing Europe: a real market with secure supply. Opening remarks at press conference on the Commission’s energy package, SPEECH/07/553, Brussels, 19 September 2007.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J. M. 2007b. The EU: ending the doubts on energy and climate change. IFRI energy programme, SPEECH/07/332, Brussels, 24 May 2007.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J., M. 2009. Statement of President Barroso on the Resolution of the Ukraine-Russia Gas Dispute. SPEECH09/12, Brussels, 20 January 2009.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J. M. 2011. Speech by President Barroso: “A Europe for all weathers”, Meeting with EU Heads of Delegation, SPEECH/11/838, Brussels, 30 November 2011.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J. M. 2012. EU-Russia Summit - President Barroso´s main messages, MEMO/12/1022, Brussels, 21 December 2012.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J. M. 2013a. Speech by President Barroso at the Russia-European Union - Potential for Partnership konference: „Moving into a Partnership of Choice“, SPEECH/13/249, Moscow, 21 Marc 2013.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J., M. 2013b. Statement by President Barroso following the EURussia Summit in Yekaterinburg. SPEECH13/502, Yekaterinburg, 4 June 2013.Google Scholar

  • BARROSO, J., M. 2014. Speech by President Barroso at the Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy University, SPEECH/ 14/468, Baku, 14 June 2014.Google Scholar

  • BORRELL FONTELLES, J.2006a. Welcome speech by the President to the participants in the joint meeting with the national parliaments of the Member States (plus Bulgaria and Romania) on energy efficiency. Brussels, 24 January 2006.Google Scholar

  • BORRELL FONTELLES, J. 2006b. Speech by the President at the meeting between the National Parliaments and the European Parliament: “Parliaments on the Road to Lisbon”. Brussels, January 2006.Google Scholar

  • BUZEK, J. 2009. Zahajovací projev předsedy Evropského parlamentu Jerzyho Buzka, Štrasburk: Evropský parlament, 15 September 2009.Google Scholar

  • BUZEK, J. 2011. It is necessary to stop the spread of fire, Rossijskaja Gazeta, 13 December 2011.Google Scholar

  • BUZEK, J. 2010. ‘EU-Russia strategic partnership in light of the challenges for global governance’, Moscow, 21 June 2010.Google Scholar

  • COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 2011a. Communication on Security of Energy Supply and International Cooperation - „The EU Energy Policy: Engaging with partners beyond our borders“ - Council conclusions, 17615/11, 25 November 2011.Google Scholar

  • COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 2011b. International relations in the field of energy, 16143/11, 4 November 2011.Google Scholar

  • COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 2012. International relations in the field of energy, 9880/12, 6 June 2012.Google Scholar

  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2004. Communication from the Commission to the European Council and the European Parliament. The Energy Dialogue between the European Union and the Russian Federation between 2000 and 2004, COM 777 final, 2004.Google Scholar

  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2006a External policy to serve Europe’s energy interest. Paper from Commission/SG/HR for the European Council, S160/06, 2006.Google Scholar

  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2006b. Green Paper: A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, COM 105 final, 2006.Google Scholar

  • EVROPSKÁ KOMISE 2011. Sdělení Komise o zabezpečení dodávek energie a mezinárodní spolupráci - „Energetická politika EU: jednání s partnery za našimi hranicemi“, KOM (2011) 539, 7 September 2011.Google Scholar

  • FERRERO-WALDNER, B. 2007a. European External Relations and Energy Policy: Towards an international energy strategy. EWI/F.A.Z. - Energy Conference, SPEECH/07/517, Cologne, 11 September 2007.Google Scholar

  • FERRERO-WALDNER, B. 2007b. EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October, SPEECH/07/653, European Parliament, Strasbourg, 24 October 2007.Google Scholar

  • FERRERO-WALDNER, B. 2008a. The European Union and Russia - future prospects. Speech at Salzburg Global Seminar - Russia: The 2020 Perspective, SPEECH/08/175, 6 April 2008.Google Scholar

  • FERRERO-WALDNER, B. 2008b. Russia and the EU’s need for each other. European Club, SPEECH/08/300, State Duma Moscow, 4 July 2008.Google Scholar

  • FERRERO-WALDNER, B. 2009. „Trust in Russia and Ukraine is distorted”, Russia Today, 22 May 2009.Google Scholar

  • FRANKO, M. 2006a. „Interv’yu s gostem radiostantsii “Echo Moskvy” - Mark Franko, glava predstavitel’stva Evrokomissii v Rossii”, Radio Echo Moskvy, 6 July 2006.Google Scholar

  • FRANKO, M. 2006b. „Russia Doesn’t Deserve Its Reputation“, Kommersant. ru, 9 January 2006.Google Scholar

  • FRANKO, M. 2009. „Mark Franko: gazovyi konflikt nanosit vred i Rossii, i Ukraine, i Evrope“, Vesti.Ru, 16 January 2009.Google Scholar

  • FÜLE, Š. 2012. Interview with Commissioner Štefan Füle - EU and Neighbours: a turning point in relations, AN ENPI Project, 22 June 2012.Google Scholar

  • FÜLE, Š. 2013. Statement on the pressure exercised by Russia on countries of the Eastern Partnership, European Parliament Plenary, Strasbourg, 11 September 2013.Google Scholar

  • DE GUCHT, K. 2012. Seizing the Opportunity: EU-Russia Relations beyond the WTO, SPEECH/15/590, Helsinki, 7 September 2012.Google Scholar

  • MENDELSON, P. 2008. Russia and the EU: building trust on a shared continent. SPEECH/08/343, Moscow, 19 June 2008.Google Scholar

  • OETTINGER, G. 2010a. Speech by Commissioner Oettinger At the Moscow International Energy Forum Russia, 8 April 2010.Google Scholar

  • OETTINGER, G. 2010b. EU, Russia seek common language on energy, 23 November 2010.Google Scholar

  • OETTINGER, G. 2010c. Keynote speech given at the EU Russia 10th anniversary high level conference EURussia Permanent Partnership Council for Energy, SPEECH/10/673, Brussels, 22 November 2010.Google Scholar

  • OETTINGER, G.2011. Speech of Commissioner Oettinger at the South Stream event, Brussels, 25 May 2011.Google Scholar

  • OETTINGER, G.2013. A Transatlantic Energy Revolution: Europe´s Energy Diversification and US Unconventional Oil and Gas, SPEECH/13/642, Washington, 17 July 2013.Google Scholar

  • OETTINGER, G. 2014. „Gas is not the instrument of politics“, Stuttgarter Zeitung, 24 Marc 2014.Google Scholar

  • PIEBALGS, A. 2006a. EU and Russian energy strategies. EU-Russia Energy Dialogue Conference, SPEECH/06/653, Moscow, 30 October 2006.Google Scholar

  • PIEBALGS, A. 2006b. Global Energy Industry Russian International Energy Week, SPEECH/06/646, Moscow, 31 October 2006.Google Scholar

  • PIEBALGS, A. 2007a. EU - Russia energy cooperation. International Energy Week, SPEECH/07/654, Moscow, 23 October 2007.Google Scholar

  • PIEBALGS, A. 2007b. Nabucco pipeline and security of supply. High Level Conference on Nabucco, SPEECH/07/531, Budapest, 14 September 2007.Google Scholar

  • PIEBALGS, A. 2008. „Energy industry will not change by itself“, European Energy Review, 13 Marc 2008.Google Scholar

  • PÖTTERING, H.-G. 2007a. Projev předsedy Evropského parlamentu Prof. Dr. Hanse-Gerta Pötteringa na zasedání Evropské rady. Brusel, 8 Marc 2007.Google Scholar

  • PÖTTERING, H.-G. 2007b. Vystoupení předsedy Evropského parlamentu prof. Dr. Hanse-Gerta Pötteringa k zasedání Evropské rady. Brusel, 21 June 2007.Google Scholar

  • PÖTTERING, H.-G. 2008. Address by the President of the European Parliament to the Lithuanian Parliament, the Seimas. Vilnius, 24 April 2008.Google Scholar

  • VAN ROMPUY, H. 2010. „The power of ideas“: President of the European Council Herman Van Rompuy at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 21 December 2010.Google Scholar

  • VAN ROMPUY, H. 2012. Visa-free travel is common goal of EU and Russia, Interfax, 1 June 2012.Google Scholar

  • VAN ROMPUY, H. 2013. Remarks by President of the European Council Herman Van Rompuy following the 31st EU-Russia Summit, Yekaterinburg, 4 June 2013.Google Scholar

  • REHN, O. 2006. Debates of the European Parliament: 17th EU-Russia Summit (26 May 2006). Strasbourg, 16 June 2006.Google Scholar

  • REHN, O. 2008a. Energy Security and the Eastern neighbourhood: Challenges for the European Union. Pan-European Institute 20th Anniversary Conference “Energy Challenges in Northern Europe”, SPEECH/08/662, Turku, 27 November 2008.Google Scholar

  • REHN, O. 2008b. EU-Russia relations: the way forward? EU-Russia Seminar of the Swedish People´s Party in Finland, SPEECH/08/236, Helsinki, 8 May 2008.Google Scholar

  • REHN, O. 2009. The EU´s Role in the World, SPEECH/09/368, University of Copenhagen, 9 September 2009.Google Scholar

  • SCHULZ, M. 2013. Speech to the European Council 24 October by the President of the European Parliament Martin Schulz, Brussels, 24 October 2013.Google Scholar

  • SOLANA, J. 2007. Interview in Ria Novosti, 15 May 2007.Google Scholar

  • SOLANA, J. 2008a. „EU looks to closer ties with Russia under Medvedev. Interview with EU HR Javier Solana“, Ria Novosti, 25 June 2008a.Google Scholar

  • SOLANA, J. 2008b. Where is Russia going? A new attempt for an all-European Security Order. Summary of the Address by Javier Solana at the 44th Munich Conference on Security Policy, S055/08, Munich, 10 February 2008.Google Scholar

  • UŠACKAS, V. 2013. “Rossijane, kak i evropejcy, sami budut razbiratsja so svoimi trudnostjami”, 15 min.it.ru, 11 October 2013.Google Scholar

  • UŠACKAS, V. 2014. Speech by the Head of EU Delegation to Russia at a seminar on EU-Russia relations. Institute of Europe, 21 February 2014.Google Scholar

  • VALENZUELA, M. F. 2009. Fernando M. Valenzuela about the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, P&S web-site, December 2009.Google Scholar

  • VALENZUELA, M. F. 2011. “Graždanam evropejskich stran otnjud ne legče polučit”, radio Svoboda, 12 July 2011. Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2016-01-29

Published in Print: 2016-01-01

Citation Information: Slovak Journal of Political Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 60–85, ISSN (Online) 1335-9096, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sjps-2016-0004.

Export Citation

© by Lukáš Tichý. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in