Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Slovak Journal of Political Sciences

The Journal of University of Saint Cyril and Metodius in Trnava

4 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Mgr. Pavel Maškarinec, Ph.D., Determinants of Women’s Descriptive Representation on the City Boards of the Czech Statutory Cities after the Local Elections of 2014

Pavel Maškarinec
  • Department of Political Science and Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University, Pasteurova 3571/13, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-04-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sjps-2016-0006


This paper focuses on question why is descriptive (or numerical) representation of women as local political leaders higher in some cities than in others? The paper focuses on the analysis of the determinants of women’s political representation on city boards of the Czech statutory cities after the last local elections of 2014. We test some hypothesis, concerning two groups of factors that can potentially affect the success of women (socioeconomic and demographic, and political contextual), thus aiming to expand theoretical and empirical research which is in the case of determinants of women’s representation at the local level underdeveloped. Overall, the analysis reveals that regression models explaining presence of women on the city boards were not generally too successful, with slightly better performance of the model using socioeconomic and demographic factors. Specifically, Moravia and municipality size proved as very strong predictors of presence of women on the city boards in negative, or positive direction, respectively (although in full model municipality size variable lost its significance), supplementing by the proportion of female councillors in same elections, which increased successfulness of women as well. In contrast, the share of women in local councils and on city boards in the previous electoral term was not proven as statistical significant, similarly as party affiliations’ of city boards.

Keywords: Czech Republic; statutory cities; local elections; women’s representation; local councils; city boards; political parties; parliamentary parties; local parties


  • ABENDSCHÖN, S.; STEINMETZ, S. (2014): The Gender Gap in Voting Revisited: Women’s Party Preferences in a European Context. Social Politics, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 315–344.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • ANCKAR, C. (2000): Size and Party System Fragmentation. Party Politics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 305–328.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • BALÍK, S. (2008): Česká komunální politika v obcích s rozšířenou působností. Koalice, voličské vzorce a politické strany na místní úrovni v letech 1994 – 2006. Brno: CDK.Google Scholar

  • BALÍK, S. (2009): Komunální politika. Obce, aktéři a cíle místní politiky. Praha: Grada.Google Scholar

  • BERNARD, J. (2012): Individuální charakteristiky kandidátů ve volbách do zastupitelstev obcí a jejich vliv na volební výsledky. Sociologický časopis, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 613–640.Google Scholar

  • BULLOCK, C. S., III.; MACMANUS, S. A. (1991): Municipal Electoral Structure and the Election of Councilwomen. Journal of Politics, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 75–89.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • CHILDS, S.; KROOK, M. L. (2008): Critical Mass Theory and Women’s Political Representation. Political Studies, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 725–736.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • CZSO (2016): CZSO – Public Database [online]. Prague: Czech Statistical Office [cit. 4. 1. 2016], available at: https://vdb.czso.cz/vdbvo2/faces/en/index.jsf

  • DAHL, R. A.; TUFTE, E. R. (1973): Size and Democracy. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

  • DOLLAR, D.; FISMAN, R.; GATTI, R. (2001): Are women really the “fairer” sex? Corruption and women in government. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 423–429.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • FÓRUM 50% (2016): Zastoupení žen a mužů v politice: Zastupitelstva měst a obcí [online]. Praha: Fórum 50%. [cit. 4. 1. 2016], available at: http://padesatprocent.cz/cz/statistiky/zastoupeni-zen-a-muzu-vpolitice/komunalni-zastupitelstva

  • FUNK, N.; MÜLLER, M. (eds., 1993): Gender Politics and Post-Communism: Reflections from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • GELB, J.; PALLEY, M. L. (2008): Women & Politics around the World: A Comparative History and Survey. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar

  • GIGER, N. (2009): Towards A Modern Gender Gap in Europe? A comparative analysis of voting behavior in twelve countries. The Social Science Journal, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 474-492.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • GNEEZY, U.; NIEDERLE, M.; RUSTICHINI, A. (2003): Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences. Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 1049–1074.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • HUDÁK, J.; JÜPTNER, P.; SVOBODA, J. (2003, eds.): Komunální politické systémy. Praha: FF UK.Google Scholar

  • ILLNER, M. (2003): Thirteen years of reforming sub-national government in the Czech Republic. In: Kersting, N.; Vetter, A. (eds.): Reforming Local Government in Europe: Closing the Gap between Democracy and Efficiency. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 261–281.Google Scholar

  • INGELHART, R.; NORRIS, P. (2000): The Developmental Theory of the Gender Gap: Women’s and Men’s Voting Behavior in Global Perspective. International Political Science Review, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 441–463.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • JANČÁK, V.; HAVLÍČEK, T.; CHROMÝ, P.; MARADA, M. (2008): Regional Differentiation of Selected Conditions for the Development of Human and Social Capital in Czechia. Geografie, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 269–284.Google Scholar

  • JANHERT, G.; GOGISH, J.; HAHN, D.; NICKEL, H. M.; PEILN, I.; SCHAFGEN, K. (eds., 2001): Gender in Transition in Eastern and Central Europe Proceedings. Berlin: Humboldt University.Google Scholar

  • JAQUETTE, J.; WOLCHIK, S. (eds., 1999): Women and Democracy: Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar

  • JÜPTNER, P. (2004): Komunální koalice a politické modely. Politologická revue, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 80–101.Google Scholar

  • JÜPTNER, P. (2008): Local Lists in the Czech Republic. In: Reiser, M.; Holtmann, E. (eds.): Farewell to the Party Model? Independent Local Lists in East and West European Countries. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 21–37.Google Scholar

  • JÜPTNER, P. et al. (2014): Local Governance between Democracy and Efficiency. Novo mesto/Prague: Faculty of Organization Studies in Novo mesto/Charles University.Google Scholar

  • KOSTELECKÝ, T. (2005): Electoral Reforms at the Sub-National Level in the Post-Communist Czech Republic. In: Reynaert, H.; Steyvers, K.; Delwit, P.; Pilet, J.-B. (eds.): Revolution or Renovation? Reforming Local Politics in Europe. Brugge: Vanden Broele, pp. 103–127.Google Scholar

  • KOSTELECKÝ, T.; ČERMÁK, D.; VOBECKÁ, J. (2006): Druhé volby do krajských zastupitelstev – kontinuita nebo změna? Evropská volební studia, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 136–160.Google Scholar

  • KOSTELECKÝ, T.; KRIVÝ, V. (2015): Urbánno-rurálne rozdiely voličského správania v Česku a na Slovensku. Sociológia, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 390–413.Google Scholar

  • KOUBA, K.; NÁLEPOVÁ, M.; FILIPEC, O. (2013): Proč jsou ženy v české politice podreprezentovány? Politologický časopis, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 372–391.Google Scholar

  • KOVÁŘ, J.; KOVÁŘ, K. (2014): Representation of Women in Second-order Elections: The Czech Republic and Slovakia Compared. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar

  • KROOK, M. L. (2010): Women’s Representation in Parliament: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Political Studies, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 886–908.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • KRUTÍLEK, O. (2003): Celkové výsledky komunálních voleb 2002. In: Balík, S. (ed.): Komunální volby v České republice v roce 2002. Brno: MU/MPU, pp. 54–74.Google Scholar

  • KYLOUŠEK, J. (2008): Analýza proměny zastupitelů na úrovni městských částí v Brně letech 1994 až 2006. Evropská volební studia, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 202–217.Google Scholar

  • LIPSET, S. M. (1981): Political Man. The Social Bases of Politics. Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar

  • LOVENDUSKI, J. (1997): Gender Politics: A Break-through for Women? Parliamentary Affairs, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 708–719.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • LOTT, J. R.; KENNY, L. W. (1999): Did Women’s Suffrage Change the Size and Scope of Government? Journal of Political Economy, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1163–1198.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MAGIN, R. (2013): Women in local assemblies – rare guests or (almost) equal partners? In: Pini, B.; McDonald, P. (eds.): Women and Representation in Local Government. International case studies. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 37–55.Google Scholar

  • MAŠKARINEC, P. (2015): Nationalisation of the Czech Local Party System: Case Study of the 2010 Local Elections in Municipalities with Extended Powers. Sociológia, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 625–656.Google Scholar

  • MATLAND, R. (1998): Women’s Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries. Legislative Studies Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 109–125.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MATLAND, R. E.; STUDLAR, D. T. (1996): The Contagion of Women Candidates in Single-Member District and Proportional Representation Electoral Systems: Canada and Norway. The Journal of Politics, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 707–733.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MATLAND, R. E.; MONTGOMERY, K. A. (eds., 2003): Women’s Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • MOGHADAM, V. M. (2010): Gender, Politics, and Women’s Empowerment. In: Leicht, K. T.; Jenkins, J. (eds.): Handbook of Politics: State and Society in Global Perspective. New York: Springer, pp. 279–303.Google Scholar

  • NEWTON, K. (1982): Is Small Really so Beautiful? Is Big Really so Ugly? Size, Effectiveness, and Democracy in Local Government. Political Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 190–206.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • NIEDERLE, M.; VESTERLUND, L. (2007): Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much? Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 1067–1101.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • NORRIS, P. (1987): Politics and Sexual Equality: The Comparative Position of Women in Western Democracies. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar

  • NORRIS, P. (2002): Democratic Phoenix. Reinventing Political Activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • ONDERCIN, H. L.; WELCH, S. (2009): Comparing predictors of women’s congressional election success. American Politics Research, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 593–613.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • ORTBALS, C. D.; RINCKERY, M.; MONTOYA, C. (2011): Politics Close to Home: The Impact of Meso-level Institutions on Women in Politics. Publius: The Journal of Federalism, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 78–107.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • PANDE, R.; FORD, D. (2011): Gender Quotas and Female Leadership. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

  • PAXTON, P. (1997): Women in National Legislatures: A Cross-National Analysis. Social Science Research, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 442–464.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • PITKIN, H. F. (1967): The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar

  • PINK, M.; MAŠTEROVÁ, M.; ŠVEC, M.; ŽŮRKOVÁ, K. (2011): Personální stabilita a proměna zastupitelských sborů okresních měst Zlínského kraje a Vysočiny po roce 1990. Evropská volební studia, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 87–103.Google Scholar

  • PINK, M.; SEIDL, J., SKIBOVÁ, M.; VOJTAJ, J. (2012): Personální (ne)stabilita komunálních zastupitelstev v Plzni a Ostravě. Středoevropské politické studie, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 374–398.Google Scholar

  • POMAHAČ, R. (2013): Czech Republic. Local government in the Czech Republic: History, current position, prospective evolution. In: Panara, C.; Varny, M. (eds.): Local Government in Europe: The ‘fourth level’ in the EU multilayered system of governance. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 52–72.Google Scholar

  • REUSCHMEYER, M. (1998): Women in the Politics of Post-Communist Eastern Europe. New York: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar

  • RULE, W. (1987): Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women’s Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies. Western Political Quarterly, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 477–98.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • RYŠAVÝ, D. (2006a): Changes of local political elite in small town and rural area. Does Revolution Devour Its Children? East European Countryside, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 51–65.Google Scholar

  • RYŠAVÝ, D. (2006b): Komunální je komunální a velká je velká! K hypotéze politizace lokálních politických elit. Sociologický časopis, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 953–970.Google Scholar

  • RYŠAVÝ, D. (2007): Regionální politické elity – zrod, charakter a důsledky. Sociologický časopis, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 993–1016.Google Scholar

  • RYŠAVÝ, D.; ŠARADÍN, P. (2010): Straníci, bezpartijní a nezávislí zastupitelé na českých radnicích. Sociologický časopis, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 719–743.Google Scholar

  • RYŠAVÝ, D.; BERNARD, J. (2013): Size and Local Democracy: the Case of Czech Municipal Representatives. Local Government Studies, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 833–852.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • SLDB (2011): Population and Housing Census 2011 [online]. Prague: Czech Statistical Office [cit. 4. 1. 2016], available at: https://vdb.czso.cz/vdbvo2/faces/en/index.jsf

  • SLOAT, A. (2004): Where are the Women? Female political visibility in EU accession states. Transitions, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 45–58.Google Scholar

  • SMITH, A. R.; Reingold, B.; Owens, M. L. (2012): The Political Determinants of Women’s Descriptive Representation in Cities. Political Research Quarterly, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 315–329.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • STEGMAIER, M.; VLACHOVÁ, K. (2011): The parliamentary election in the Czech Republic, May 2010. Electoral Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 238–241.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • STEGMAIER, M.; LINEK, L. (2014): The parliamentary election in the Czech Republic, October 2013. Electoral Studies, vol. 35, pp. 385–388.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • SZTWIERTINA, R.; HELLOVÁ, D. (2012): Ženy v lokální politice – případová studie obcí do tří tisíc obyvatel v Moravskoslezském kraji. Politologický časopis, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 260–275.Google Scholar

  • ŠARADÍN, P. (2004a): Neparlamentní subjekty ve volbách do obecních zastupitelstev. Politologický časopis, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 109–120.Google Scholar

  • ŠARADÍN, P. (2004b): Volební účast ve volbách do obecních zastupitelstev v ČR. Středoevropské politické studie, vol. 4, no. 2–3.Google Scholar

  • ŠPRINCOVÁ, V. (2014): Analýza výsledků voleb do zastupitelstev měst a obcí 2014 z hlediska zastoupení žen. Praha: Fórum 50 %.Google Scholar

  • ŠPRINCOVÁ, V.; ADAMUSOVÁ, M. (2014): Politická angažovanost žen v České republice. Přehledová studie (1993 – 2013). Praha: Fórum 50 %.Google Scholar

  • TOGEBY, L. (1994): Political Implications of Increasing Numbers of Women in the Labor Force. Comparative Political Studies, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 211–240.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • TROUNSTINE, J.; VALDINI, M. E. (2008): The Context Matters: The Effects of Single-Member versus At-Large Districts on City Council Diversity. American Journal of Political Science, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 554–569.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • VENGROFF, R.; NYIRi, Z.; FUGIERO, M. (2003): Electoral System and Gender Representation in Sub-National Legislatures: Is there a National Sub–National Gender Gap? Political Research Quarterly, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 163–173.Google Scholar

  • VOLBY.CZ (2016): Volební server ČSÚ [online]. Praha: Český statistický úřad [cit. 4. 1. 2016], available at: http://www.volby.cz/

  • VRÁBLÍKOVÁ, K. (2007): Vliv volebních systémů na politickou reprezentaci žen v postkomunistických zemích. Evropská volební studia, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 164–179.Google Scholar

  • WEAKLIEM, D. L. (1991): The Two Lefts? Occupation and Party Choice in France, Italy, and the Netherlands. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 1327–1361.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • WELCH, S.; Karning, A. K. (1979): Correlates of Female Office Holding in City Politics. The Journal of Politics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 478–491.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2016-04-22

Published in Print: 2016-04-01

Citation Information: Slovak Journal of Political Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 113–133, ISSN (Online) 1335-9096, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/sjps-2016-0006.

Export Citation

© 2016 Pavel Maškarinec, published by De Gruyter Open. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in