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Slovak Raptor Journal

The Journal of Raptor Protection of Slovakia

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Sub-lethal effects of the anticoagulant rodenticides bromadiolone and chlorophacinone on breeding performances of the barn owl (Tyto alba) in oil palm plantations

Hasber Salim
  • Department of Plant Protection, Faculty ofAgriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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/ Hafidzi Mohd Noor
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Plant Protection, Faculty ofAgriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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/ Dzolkhifli Omar
  • Department of Plant Protection, Faculty ofAgriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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/ Noor Hisham Hamid
  • Crop Protection Division, Felda Agricultural Services Sdn Bhd, Tun Razak Agriculture Research Centre, 27000, Pahang, Malaysia
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/ Mohd Rizuan Zainal Abidin
  • Crop Protection Division, Felda Agricultural Services Sdn Bhd, Tun Razak Agriculture Research Centre, 27000, Pahang, Malaysia
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/ Azhar Kasim
  • Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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/ Hasber Salim / Che Salmah Md Rawi / Abu Hassan Ahmad
Published Online: 2014-12-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/srj-2014-0013

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of the first generation anticoagulant rodenticide chlorophacinone and the second generation rodenticide bromadiolone on the population and breeding performances of barn owls at oil palm plantations. Three treatment plots were established: one baited with chlorophacinone, one with bromadiolone, and the third kept rodenticide-free. Four rat-baiting campaigns which coincided with barn owl breeding season were carried in the rodenticide-treated plots. The occupancy rate of nest boxes, clutch size, brood size and fledging rates of the barn owls in each plot were monitored weekly throughout the study. Freshly regurgitated pellets from barn owls were collected from all occupied nest boxes at weekly intervals during the development of nestlings in each breeding season. The results show that the occupancy rate of the nest boxes was significantly higher in the rodenticide-free area compared with both rodenticide-treated areas. Similarly, the breeding performances, such as clutch size, brood size and fledging success, were higher in the rodenticide-free area compared with the rodenticide-treated areas. Results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that 20.56% (mean residue: 1 .335 ± 0.073 lg/g) and 28.89% (mean residue: 0.777 ± 0.032 lg/g) of the collected regurgitated pellet samples from the rodenticide-treated areas contained bromadiolone and chlorophacinone residue, respectively. The mean brood size and fledging success of the barn owls showed a strong negative correlation with the mean concentration of rodenticide residues present in the regurgitated pellets and with the percentages of pellets detected having such residues (R2 k 0.44, P < 0.05). Similarly, the mean clutch size of barn owls was negatively correlated with the mean concentration of rodenticide residues and with the percentages of pellets detected with these residues. However, the correlation was not significantly different (R2 k 0.34, P > 0.05). In general, the higher the amount of residues detected, the lower the breeding performance parameters measured in this study

Abstrakt

Štúdia skúma vplyv prvej generácie antikoagulacného rodenticídu chlórofacinonu a druhej generácie bromadiolonu na parametre hniezdenej úspešnosti plamienky driemavej na plantážach palmy olejovej. Založili sa tri pokusné plochy: jedna ošetrená chlórofacinonom, dalšia s bromadiolonom a tretia kontrolná bez rodenticídu. Na chemicky ošetrených plochách sa pocas hniezdnej sezóny rodenticíd vykladal štyri krát. Obsadenost hniezdnych búdok, velkost znášky, pocet vyliahnutých mládat a podiel vyletených mládat plamienky sa zistovali v týždenných intervaloch. Z obsadených hniezd sa tiež v týždenných intervaloch zbierali vývržky. Z výsledkov vyplýva, že podiel obsadených búdok bol štatisticky významne vyšší na chemicky neošetrenej ploche než na plochách s vyloženou otrávenou návnadou. Rovnako aj parametre hniezdenia - velkost znášky, pocet vyliahnutých mládat a pocet vyletených mládat - dosahovali vyšších hodnôt na neošetrenej ploche. Z výsledkov z vysokoúcinnej kvapalinovej chromatografie (HPLC) vyplýva, že 20,56 % (priemerná koncentrácia rezíduí: 1 ,335 ± 0,073 lg/g) a 28,89 % (priemerná koncentrácia rezíduí: 0,777 ± 0,032 lg/g) z vývržkov zozbieraných v rodenticídom ošetrených plochách obsahovalo rezíduá bromadiolonu alebo chlórofacinonu. Priemerná velkost znášky a pocet vyletených mládat negatívne korelovali s priemernou koncentráciou rezíduí rodenticídov vo vývržkoch a s relatívnym podielom vývržkov obsahujúcich tieto rezíduá (R2 k 0.44, P < 0.05). Negatívne koreloval s týmito charakteristikami aj priemerný pocet vyliahnutých mládat, avšak štatisticky nevýznamne (R2 k 0.34, P > 0.05). Zovšeobecnujúc možno konštatovat, že cím vyššie bolo množstvo chemických rezíduí vo vývržkoch, tým nižšie boli parametre hniezdnej úspešnosti

Keywords: secondary poisoning; rodenticides; barn owls; oil palm plantations; non-target organisms

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About the article

Published Online: 2014-12-30

Published in Print: 2014-12-01


Citation Information: Slovak Raptor Journal, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 113–122, ISSN (Online) 1338-7227, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/srj-2014-0013.

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© by Hafidzi Mohd Noor. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

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