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tm - Technisches Messen

Plattform für Methoden, Systeme und Anwendungen der Messtechnik

[TM - Technical Measurement: A Platform for Methods, Systems, and Applications of Measurement Technology
]

Editor-in-Chief: Puente León, Fernando / Zagar, Bernhard

12 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.476

CiteScore 2017: 0.46

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.239
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.566

Online
ISSN
2196-7113
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Volume 84, Issue 11

Issues

In-situ photoluminescence measurements during MOVPE of GaN and InGaN in a CCS reactor

In-situ Photolumineszenz-Messungen während einer MOVPE von GaN und InGaN in einem CCS-Reaktor

Christoph Prall
  • Corresponding author
  • Institute of Measurement Engineering and Sensor Technology, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, PO Box 10 07 55, 45407 Muelheim a. d. Ruhr Germany
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Christian Kaspari / Arne Knauer
  • Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Straße 4, 12489 Berlin Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Kolja Haberland / Markus Weyers
  • Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Straße 4, 12489 Berlin Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dirk Rueter
  • Institute of Measurement Engineering and Sensor Technology, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, PO Box 10 07 55, 45407 Muelheim a. d. Ruhr Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-08-10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/teme-2017-0038

Abstract

Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) have become important semiconductor materials for the LED lighting industry. Recently, a photoluminescence (PL) technique for direct in-situ characterization of GaN and InGaN layers during epitaxial growth in a planetary metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor was reported. The PL signals reveal – at the earliest possible stage – information about current layer thickness, temperature, composition, surface roughness, and self-absorption. Thus, the PL data is valuable for both controlling and optimizing the growth parameters, thereby promising both better devices and a better yield for the LED industry. This technical report describes an extension of this PL technique to close coupled showerhead (CCS) reactors with narrow optical viewports. In contrast to the wide aperture optics in previous investigations, a compact and all-fiber optical probe without voluminous lens optics, filter elements or beam splitters was used.

Zusammenfassung

Gallium Nitrid (GaN) und Indium Gallium Nitrid (InGaN) sind mittlerweile wichtige Halbleitermaterialien für die LED-Beleuchtungstechnik. Über eine Photolumineszenz (PL)-Technik für eine direkte In-situ Charakterisierung von GaN- und InGaN-Schichten während des epitaktischen Wachstums innerhalb eines Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) Planeten-Reaktors wurde kürzlich berichtet. Die PL-Signale liefern – zum frühestmöglichen Zeitpunkt – Informationen über die aktuelle Schichtdicke, Temperatur, Komposition, Oberflächenrauheit und Selbst-Absorption. Somit sind die PL-Daten sowohl nützlich zur Kontrolle als auch zur Optimierung der Wachstumsparameter und damit vielversprechend für bessere Produkte und eine bessere Ausbeute in der LED-Industrie. Dieser technische Bericht beschreibt eine Erweiterung dieser PL-Technik auf Close Coupled Showerhead (CCS) Reaktoren mit eingeschränkten optischen Zugängen. Im Gegensatz zu verwendeten Optiken mit weiter Apertur in vorherigen Untersuchungen wird hier eine kompakte, komplett-faserbasierte optische Sonde ohne voluminöse optische Linsen, Filterelemente oder Strahlteiler verwendet.

Keywords: Process characterization; photoluminescence; metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy; Indium Gallium Nitride; light emitting diodes

Schlagwörter: Prozesscharakterisierung; Photolumineszenz; metallorganische Gasphasenepitaxie; Indium Gallium Nitrid; Licht emittierende Dioden

About the article

Christoph Prall

Christoph Prall received a diploma degree in laser technology in 2009 and a Master of Science degree in Applied Physics in 2011, both from the University of Applied Sciences RheinAhrCampus Koblenz, Germany. From 2009–2010 he was a scientific assistant at the Institute for X-Optics (IXO) Remagen, Germany. Since 2011 he is a scientific assistant at the Institute of Measurement Engineering and Sensor Technology, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, Muelheim a. d. Ruhr, Germany. Since 2015 he is an external PhD student in Engineering at the General and Theoretical Electrical Engineering (ATE), Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany (http://www.ate.uni-due.de/). His current research interests include high-temperature photoluminescence, semiconductors, spectroscopy, laser and applied optics. He is a member of the German Physical Society (DPG).

Institute of Measurement Engineering and Sensor Technology, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, PO Box 10 07 55, 45407 Muelheim a. d. Ruhr, Germany

Christian Kaspari

Christian Kaspari received his diploma degree in Physics in 2002 and a Ph.D. degree in Physics in 2007, both from the Technical University Berlin, Germany (http://www.tu-berlin.de). From 2007 until 2011, he worked at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute in Berlin (http://www.fbh-berlin.de), where he focused on MOCVD of GaAs-based laser structures. Since 2011 he has been working as senior engineer concept development in the R&D department at LayTec AG (www.laytec.de). His main focus is the development of novel optical measurement systems and techniques for MOCVD and other deposition processes. He is a member of the German Physical Society (DPG).

LayTec AG, Seesener Str. 10–13, 10709 Berlin, Germany

Arne Knauer

Arne Knauer received the Diploma in Physics from the State University of Chisinau, Moldova in 1981 for his work on the Epitaxy and optical properties of ZnSe layers on sapphire. 1981 he joined the Central Institute of Optics and Spectroscopy in the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, working on material science of semiconductor lasers (0.85 and 1.55 μm). In 1990 he received his Ph.D. degree in Physics from the Humboldt University Berlin, Germany. Since 1992 he is working at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute Berlin (FBH) on MOVPE and characterization of (Al,Ga, In)(As,P)- and (Al,Ga,In)N-related device structures.

Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Straße 4, 12489 Berlin, Germany

Kolja Haberland

Kolja Haberland is Chief Technology Officer (CTO) at LayTec, a leading manufacturer of integrated metrology for the compound semiconductor industry. He studied physics at the Technical University of Berlin with special focus on semiconductor physics and optical spectroscopy. In 1998, he finished his diploma thesis on “multi-channel spectroscopy of dynamic processes on semiconductor surfaces”. In 2003, he got his PhD for his work on “optical in-situ monitoring during epitaxial growth”. In 2004, for his contributions he was awarded the Carl-Ramsauer-Prize of the Berlin Physical Society. Since 1999, when LayTec was founded with Dr. Haberland being one of the co-founders, he worked in several responsible positions at LayTec and contributed significantly to the rapid growth of this technology company, providing both industry and academia with integrated metrology solutions for epitaxy of LEDs, lasers, transistors and solar cells.

LayTec AG, Seesener Str. 10–13, 10709 Berlin, Germany

Markus Weyers

Markus Weyers received his Diploma in Physics '86 and his Dr. rer. nat. degree in 1990 from RWTH Aachen, Germany. From 9/90 to 3/92 he was with NTT Basic Research Labs in Musashino, Japan. Since 4/92 he is Head of the Materials Technology Department at Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik in Berlin,Germany. Since 6/2014 he is adjunct Professor at TU Berlin where he teaches Applied Physics. His research interests include MOVPE growth of GaAs-and GaN-based laser structures, GaN-based lasers, LEDs and transistor structures and HVPE for GaN and AlGaN substrates. He has authored and co-authored around 400 scientific papers on growth studies as well as device growth in MOVPE, MOMBE and HVPE. 1999 he founded the epiwafer foundry Three-Five Epitaxial Services AG (TESAG) which he headed until the end of 2008. In 1999 he also co-founded LayTec GmbH (now LayTec AG), a producer of in-situ metrology tools for MOVPE. Currently he is Head of the Supervisory Board of LayTec AG.

Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Straße 4, 12489 Berlin, Germany

Dirk Rueter

Dirk Rueter received his diploma degree in electrical engineering from the Technical University in Karlsruhe (Germany) in 1990. Since 1991 he has been working at the Institute for Optical and Electronic Materials, Technical University Hamburg, where he got his Ph.D. degree in 1997. From 1997–2007 he has been the founder and partner of UVC (www.uvc.de), an engineering company for electronic and measurement techniques in Hamburg. In 2007 he became site manager in Saalfeld for LumaSense Technologies GmbH (www.lumasenseinc.com), a company for industrial infrared systems. He managed and guided the production and engineering team and was involved in the development of new products or customized solutions. Since 2010 he is a professor at the University of Applied Science Ruhr-West in Muelheim. In the Institute of Measurement and Sensor Technology he teaches and works in electrical engineering, materials and optoelectronics. His research interests and activities cover applied electromagnetic and RF systems, ultrasound techniques, optoelectronic systems and phenomena, novel materials or structures and medical applications.

Institute of Measurement Engineering and Sensor Technology, University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, PO Box 10 07 55, 45407 Muelheim a. d. Ruhr, Germany


Revised: 2017-07-13

Accepted: 2017-07-14

Received: 2017-05-04

Published Online: 2017-08-10

Published in Print: 2017-11-27


Citation Information: tm - Technisches Messen, Volume 84, Issue 11, Pages 747–752, ISSN (Online) 2196-7113, ISSN (Print) 0171-8096, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/teme-2017-0038.

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