Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Text & Talk

An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language, Discourse & Communication Studies

Ed. by Sarangi, Srikant


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.400
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.750

CiteScore 2018: 0.61

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.305
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.670

Online
ISSN
1860-7349
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 36, Issue 3

Issues

When bank stocks are hobbled by worries: A metaphor study of emotions in the financial news reports

Janet Ho
Published Online: 2016-04-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/text-2016-0014

Abstract

This study is a corpus-based examination of metaphors in the media coverage of the global financial crisis of 2008. Based on conceptual metaphor theory, it discusses how and why metaphors of living thing were used in the news reports, with a particular focus on the two negative emotions of fear and anxiety. The research started with the compilation of a 1-million-word corpus of news articles. With the use of the software suites Wmatrix 2.0 and WordSmith 5.0, metaphors directly conceptualizing the emotions of fear and anxiety were identified. The findings showed that these metaphors described various stages and intensities of negative emotions, and that they were tailored to increase the negative feelings of the readers, which in turn increased the news value of the articles for the newspaper. Various theoretical and lexicogrammatical implications have also arisen from the study.

Keywords: negative emotion; financial crisis; news discourse; corpus linguistics; metaphor

References

  • Altheide, David L. 2002. Creating fear: News and the construction of crisis. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

  • Amid the Wall Street chaos: Confusion, anger and shifting opinions. 1 October 2008. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/01/us/01voices.html?pagewanted=print (accessed 1 November 2008).

  • Baker, Paul. 2006. Using corpora in discourse analysis. London: Continuum.Google Scholar

  • Barcelona, Antonio S. 1986. On the concept of depression in American English: A cognitive approach. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 12. 7–35.Google Scholar

  • Bell, Allan. 1991. The language of news media. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Cambridge International Dictionary of English. 1995. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Cameron, Lynne & Alice Deignan. 2003. Using large and small corpora to investigate tuning devices around metaphor in spoken discourse. Metaphor and Symbol 18(3).149–60.Google Scholar

  • Can we dodge a recession? Many consumers feel poor. 26 September 2008. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-09-21-recession-fears_N.htm (accessed 12 October 2008).

  • Charteris-Black, Jonathan. 2004. Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

  • Charteris-Black, Jonathan & Andreas Musolff. 2003. “‘Battered hero’ or ‘innocent victim’? A comparative study of metaphors for euro trading in British and German financial reporting.” English for Specific Purposes 22(2). 153–176.Google Scholar

  • Deignan, Alice. 2010. The cognitive view of metaphor: Conceptual metaphor theory. In Lynne Cameron & Robert Maslen (eds.), Metaphor analysis: Research practice in applied linguistics, social sciences and the humanities, 44–56. London: Equinox.Google Scholar

  • Eubanks, Philip. 2002. A war of words in the discourse of trade: The rhetorical constitution of metaphor. USA: Southern Illinois University Press.

  • Fear and loathing in La Jolla. 11 October 2008. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/12/business/12every.html (accessed 12 October 2008).

  • Fear of deflation lurks as global demand Drops. 31 October 2008. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/01/business/economy/01deflation.html?pagewanted=all (accessed 1 November 2008).

  • Fukuda, Kosei. 2009. A comparative study of metaphors representing the US and Japanese economies. Journal of Pragmatics 41(9). 1693–1702.Google Scholar

  • Ghinassi, C. Winning. 2010. Anxiety. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood.Google Scholar

  • Gibbs, Raymond W. Jr. 2010. The wonderful, chaotic, creative, heroic, challenging world of Researching and Applying metaphor: A celebration of the past and some peeks into the future. In Graham Low, Zazie Todd, Alice Deignan & Lynne Cameron (eds.), Researching and applying metaphor in the real world. 1–18. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Goatly, Andrew. 2007. Washing the brain: metaphor and hidden ideology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Goatly, Andrew. 2011. Metaphor as resource for the conceptualisation and expression of emotion. In Khurshid Ahmad (ed.), Sentiment Analysis: Emotion, Metaphor, Ontology and Terminology, 13–25. Berlin: Springer.

  • Goddard, Peter, John Corner, Neil T. Gavin & Kay Richardson. 1998. Economic news and the dynamics of understanding: The Liverpool project. In Neil T. Gavin (ed.), The economy, media and public knowledge, 9–37. Studies in Communication and Society Series. London: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar

  • Hsiao, Chi Hua & Lily I. Su 2010. Metaphor and hyperbolic expressions of emotion in Mandarin Chinese conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 42. 1380–1396.Google Scholar

  • Investors hope deal spells relief. Stock swings, costly credit magnified market strains. 29 September 2009. USA Today. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/printedition/money/20080929/1b_mart29.art.htm (accessed 12 October 2008).

  • Kamin, Steven B. & Laurie Pounder DeMarco. 2012. How did a domestic housing slump turn into a global financial crisis? Journal of International Money and Finance 31(1). 10–41.Google Scholar

  • Koller, Veronika. 2005. Critical discourse analysis and social cognition: Evidence from business media discourse. Discourse & Society 16(2). 199–224.Google Scholar

  • Koller, Veronika. 2006. Of critical importance: Using electronic text corpora to study metaphor in business media discourse. In Anatol Stefanowitsch & Stefan Th. Gries (eds.), Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy, 237–266. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Koller, Veronika. 2008. Contradictory metaphors in contemporary marketing discourse. In Zanotto, Mara Sophia, Lynne Cameron & Marilda C. Cavalcanti (eds.), Confronting metaphor in use: An applied linguistic approach, 103–126. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Kövecses, Zoltán. 1986. Metaphors of anger, pride and love: A lexical approach to the structure of concepts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Kövecses, Zoltán. 2000. The scope of metaphor. In Antonio Barcelona (ed.), Metaphor and metonymy at the crossroads: A cognitive perspective, 79–92. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

  • Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson. 1999. Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic books.Google Scholar

  • Lakoff, George & Mark Turner. 1999. More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

  • Lakoff, George & Zoltán Kövecses. 1987. The cognitive model of anger inherent in American English. In Dorothy Holland & Naomi Quinn (eds.), Cultural models in language and thought, 195–221. London: Cambridge University Press.

  • Lascaratou, Chryssoula. 2007. The language of pain. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar

  • Lehman Files for Bankruptcy, Merrill Sold, AIG Seeks Cash. 16 September 2008. The WallStreet Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122145492097035549.html (accessed 12 October 2008).

  • López, Ana María Rojo & María Ángeles Orts Llopis. 2010. Metaphorical pattern analysis in financial texts: Framing the crisis in positive or negative metaphorical terms. Journal of Pragmatics 42(12). 3300–3313.Google Scholar

  • Maalej, Zouhair. 2008. The heart and cultural embodiment in Tunisian Arabic. In Farzad Sharifian, René Dirven, Ning Yu & Susanne Niemeyer (eds.), Culture, body and language. Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages, 395–428. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • Matsuki, Keiko. 1995. Metaphors of anger in Japanese. In John Taylor & Robert E. MacLaury (eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world. 137–151. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • McArthur, Tom. 1981. Longman lexicon of contemporary English. UK: Longman.Google Scholar

  • Nerghes, Adina, Iina Hellsten & Peter Groenewegen. 2015. A toxic crisis: Metaphorizing the financial crisis. International Journal of Communication 9. 106–132.Google Scholar

  • Oberlechner, Thomas, Thomas Slunecko & Nicole Kronberger. 2004. Surfing the money tides: Understanding the foreign exchange market through metaphors. British Journal of Social Psychology 43. 133–156.Google Scholar

  • Oster, Ulrike. 2010. Using corpus methodology for semantic and pragmatic analyses: What can corpora tell us about the linguistic expression of emotions? Cognitive Linguistics 21(4). 727–763.Google Scholar

  • Pragglejaz Group. 2007. MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor and symbol 22(1). 1–39.Google Scholar

  • Rayson, Paul. 2008. Wmatrix corpus analysis and comparison tool. Lancaster: Lexical Analysis Software.Google Scholar

  • Scherer, Klaus R. 1997. The role of culture in emotion-antecedent appraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73. 902–922.Google Scholar

  • Scott, Mike. 2008: Online. WordSmith Tools. Version 5. Online manual. Available at: http://www.lexically.net/downloads/version5/HTML/index.html (accessed 12 August 2013).

  • Shares slide as grim news keeps the markets on edge. 22 January 2009. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/23/business/23markets.html (accessed 1 February 2009).

  • Shiller, Robert J. 2008. The subprime solution: How today’s global financial crisis happened, and what to do about it. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

  • Skorczynska, Hanna. 2010. A corpus-based evaluation of metaphors in a business English textbook. English for Specific Purposes 29(1). 30–42.Google Scholar

  • Skorczynska, Hanna & Alice Deignan. 2006. Readership and purpose in the choice of economics metaphors. Metaphor and Symbol 21(2). 87–104.Google Scholar

  • Soroka, Stuart N. 2006. Good news and bad news: Asymmetric responses to economic information. Journal of Politics 68(2). 372–385.Google Scholar

  • Stefanowitsch, Anatol. 2006. Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. In Anatol Stefanowitsch & Stefan Th. Gries (eds.), Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy, 63–105. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Sun, Ya & Jinlin Jiang. 2014. Metaphor use in Chinese and US corporate mission statements: A cognitive sociolinguistic analysis. English for Specific Purposes 33. 4–14.Google Scholar

  • With markets on edge, journalists watch their words. 22 September 2008. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/22/business/worldbusiness/22iht-22press.16354899.html (accessed 12 October 2008).

  • World markets fall as investors weigh relentless trouble. 17 October 2008. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10 17/business/economy/17econ.html?pagewanted=print (accessed 1 November 2008).

  • You don’t always know when the sky will fall. 25 October 2008. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/26/business/26every.html?pagewanted=print&_r=0 (accessed 1 November 2008).

  • Yu, Ning. 1995. Metaphorical expressions of anger and happiness in English and Chinese. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 10(2). 59–72.Google Scholar

  • Zeidner, Moshe & Gerald Matthews. 2011. Anxiety 101. New York: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar

  • Zinken, Jörg & Andreas Musolff. 2009. A discourse-centered perspective on metaphorical meaning and understanding. In Andreas Musolff & Jörg Zinken (eds.), Metaphor and discourse, 1–8. Great Britain: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

About the article

Janet Ho

Janet Ho is Lecturer in the Department of English at Lingnan University. Her current research interests include language studies in intercultural and professional contexts, metaphor studies, corpus linguistics and pragmatics.


Published Online: 2016-04-30

Published in Print: 2016-05-01


Citation Information: Text & Talk, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 295–317, ISSN (Online) 1860-7349, ISSN (Print) 1860-7330, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/text-2016-0014.

Export Citation

©2016 by De Gruyter Mouton.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in