Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Theoretical Linguistics

An Open Peer Review Journal

Editor-in-Chief: Krifka, Manfred

Ed. by Gärtner, Hans-Martin

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 2.000
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 2.343

CiteScore 2017: 0.70

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.457
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.318

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 42, Issue 3-4


Language as Mechanisms for Interaction

Ruth Kempson / Ronnie Cann
  • Department of Linguistics and English Language, University of Edinburgh, Old College, South Bridge, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, UK
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Eleni Gregoromichelaki
  • Philosophy Department, King’s College London, Strand, London, WC2R 2LS
  • Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück, 49069 Osnabrück, Germany
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Stergios Chatzikyriakidis
  • Department of Philosophy, Linguistics, Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Open University of Cyprus, B1 33, Latsia, Cyprus
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-10-06 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tl-2016-0011


Language use is full of subsentential shifts of context, a phenomenon dramatically illustrated in conversation where non-sentential utterances displaying seamless shifts between speaker/hearer roles appear regularly. The hurdle this poses for standard assumptions is that every local linguistic dependency can be distributed across speakers, with the content of what they are saying and the significance of each conversational move emerging incrementally. Accordingly, we argue that the modelling of a psychologically-realistic grammar necessitates recasting the notion of natural language in terms of our ability for interaction with others and the environment, abandoning the competence-performance dichotomy as standardly envisaged. We sketch Dynamic Syntax, a model in which underspecification and incremental time-relative update is central, showing how interactive effects of conversation follow directly. Finally, we note the changing cognitive-science horizons to be explored once a language-as-action view is adopted.

Keywords: Dynamic Syntax; incrementality; context; dialogue; non-sententials


  • Anderson, Michael. J. 2014. After phrenology: Neural reuse and the interactive brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Asher, Nicholas & Alex Lascarides. 2003. Logics of conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Asher, Nicholas & Alex Lascarides. 2013. Strategic conversation. Semantics and Pragmatics 6. 1–58.Google Scholar

  • Baker, Mark. 2008. The syntax of agreement and concord. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Barber, Alex. 2005. Co-extensive theories and unembedded definite descriptions. In R. Elugardo & R. Stainton (eds.), 185–201. Dordrecht: Springer

  • Barr, Dale J., Laura Jackson, & Isobel Phillips 2014. Using a voice to put a name to a face: The psycholinguistics of proper name comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143. 404–413.Google Scholar

  • Barton, Ellen. 1990. Nonsentential constituents. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Barton, Ellen & Ljiljiana Progovac. 2005. In R. Elugardo & R. Stainton (eds.), 71–93. Dordrecht: Springer.

  • Bickhard, Mark H. 2009. The interactivist model. Synthese 166(3). 547–591.Google Scholar

  • Bittner, Maria. 2001. Surface composition as bridging. Journal of Semantics 18. 127–177.Google Scholar

  • Bittner, Maria 2007. Online update: Temporal, modal, and de se anaphora in polysynthetic discourse. In C. Barker & P. Jacobson (eds.), Direct compositionality, 363–404. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Bittner, Maria 2014a. Perspectival discourse referents for indexicals. In H. Greene (ed.), SULA 7, 1–22 Cornell University.

  • Bittner, Maria 2014b. Temporality: Universals and variation. John Wiley & Sons.

  • Blackburn, Patrick & Wilfried Meyer-Viol. 1994. Linguistics, logic and finite trees. Logic Journal of the Interest Group of Pure and Applied Logics 2(1). 3–29.Google Scholar

  • Bouzouita, Miriam. 2008. The diachronic development of Spanish clitic placement. Ph.D King’s College London.

  • Cann, Ronnie. 2011. Towards an account of the English auxiliary system. In R. Kempson et al. (eds.), The dynamics of lexical interfaces, 279–317. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

  • Cann, Ronnie. 2015. Indexicality and binding: Construing personal pronouns in English. MS University of Edinburgh.

  • Cann, Ronnie, Ruth Kempson & Lutz Marten. 2005a. The dynamics of language. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar

  • Cann, Ronnie, Tami Kaplan, & Ruth Kempson. 2005b. Grammaticality at the grammar-pragmatics interface: The case of resumptive pronouns in English. Lingua 115. 1551–1577.Google Scholar

  • Cann, Ronnie, Ruth Kempson & Matthew Purver. 2007. Context and well-formedness. Research in Language and Computation 5. 333–358.Google Scholar

  • Cann, Ronnie, & Ruth Kempson. 2008. Production pressures, syntactic change and the emergence of clitic pronouns. In R. Cooper & R. Kempson (eds.), 179–220. London: College Publications.

  • Cann, Ronnie & Ruth Kempson 2016. What do words do for us? Unpublished MS., University of Edinburgh/Kings College London.

  • Carstens, Vicky. 2000. Concord in minimalist theory. Linguistic Inquiry 31(2). 319–355.Google Scholar

  • Carston, Robyn. 2002 Thoughts and utterances. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Chater, Nicholas, Stewart M. McCauley & Morten H. Christiansen. 2016. Language as skill: Intertwining comprehension and production. Journal of Memory and Language. 89. 244–254.Google Scholar

  • Chatzikyriakidis, Stergios. 2010. Clitics in four dialects of Modern Greek: A dynamic account. Ph.D King’s College London.

  • Chatzikyriakidis, Stergios & Ruth Kempson. 2011 Standard modern and Pontic Greek person restrictions: A feature-free dynamic account. Journal of Greek Linguistics 11(2). 127–166.Google Scholar

  • Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar

  • Chomsky, Noam. 1995. Language and nature. Mind 104(413). 1–61.Google Scholar

  • Christiansen, Morton & Nicholas Chater. 2015 The Now-or-never bottleneck: A fundamental constraint on language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X1500031X.Crossref

  • Clark, Herbert. 1996. Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Clark, Eve. 2009. First language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Clark, Eve & Bruno Estigarribia. 2011. Using speech and gesture to introduce new objects to young children. Gesture 11(1). 1–23.Google Scholar

  • Cooper, Robin. 2012. Type theory and semantics in flux. In R. Kempson et al. (eds.) Handbook of the philosophy of linguistics, 271–323. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar

  • Cooper, Robin & Ruth Kempson (eds.) 2008. Language in flux: Dialogue coordination, language variation, change and evolution. London: College Publications.Google Scholar

  • van Craenenbroeck, Jeroen. 2012. Ellipsis, identity, and accommodation. Ms. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven/Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel.

  • Dalrymple, Mary, Stuart Shieber & Fernando Perreira. 1991. Ellipsis and higher-order unification. Linguistics and Philosophy 4. 399–452.Google Scholar

  • Dehé, Nicole. 2014. Parentheticals in spoken English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Elugardo, Reinaldo & Robert Stainton (eds.) 2005. Sentential and nonsentential speech. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Eshghi, Arash. 2011. Uncommon ground: The distribution of dialogue contexts. PhD Thesis. Queen Mary, University of London.

  • Eshghi, Arash, Matthew Purver, Julian Hough & Yo Sato. 2011. DyLan: parser for Dynamic Syntax. Technical Report. Queen Mary University of London.

  • Eshghi, Arash, Matthew Purver, Julian Hough & Yo Sato. 2012. Probabilistic grammar induction in an incremental semantic framework. In H. Christiansen et al. (eds.). Constraint Solving and Language Processing, 92–107. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Eshghi, Arash, Matthew Purver & Julian Hough. 2013. Probabilistic induction for an incremental semantic grammar. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS), Potsdam, March 2013.

  • Eshghi, Arash & Oliver J. Lemon 2014. How domain-general can we be? Learning incremental Dialogue Systems without dialogue acts. In Proceedings of SemDial 2014 (DialWatt) – The 18th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, At Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh.

  • Eshghi, Arash, Christine Howes, Eleni Gregoromichelaki, Julian Hough & Matthew Purver. 2015. Feedback in conversation as incremental semantic update. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS), London.

  • Eshghi, Arash & Patrick G. T. Healey. 2016 Collective contexts in conversation: Grounding by proxy. Cognitive Science. 40. 299-324.Google Scholar

  • Fernandez, Raquel, Jonathan Ginzburg & Shalom Lappin. 2007. Classifying non-sentential utterances in dialogue: A machine learning approach. Computational Linguistics 33(3). 397–427.Google Scholar

  • Ferrara, Kathleen. 1992. The interactive achievement of a sentence: Joint productions in therapeutic discourse. Discourse Processes 15(2). 207–228.Google Scholar

  • Fiengo, Robert & Robert May. 1994. Indices and identity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Fodor, Jerry. 1983. The modularity of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Gargett, Andrew, Eleni Gregoromichelaki, Christine Howes & Yo Sato. 2008. Dialogue-grammar correspondence in dynamic syntax. In Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue. (LONDIAL’08).

  • Ginzburg, Jonathan. 2003. Disentangling public from private meaning. In J. van Kuppevelt & R. Smith (eds.), Current and new directions in discourse and dialogue, 183–212. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar

  • Ginzburg, Jonathan. 2012 The interactive stance: Meaning for conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Ginzburg, Jonathan & Ivan Sag. 2000. Interrogative investigations. Stanford, CA: CSLI.Google Scholar

  • Ginzburg, Jonathan & Robin Cooper. 2004. Clarification ellipsis and the nature of updates in dialogue. Linguistics and Philosophy 27. 297–365.Google Scholar

  • Ginzburg, Jonathan, Raquel Fernández & David Schlangen. 2012. On the semantics and pragmatics of dysfluency. In M. Aloni, et al. (eds.). Logic, Language and Meaning, 321–330. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni 2002. The dynamics of relative clauses in modern Greek. MSc Dissertation, King’s College London.

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni. 2006. Conditionals in dynamic syntax. Ph.D King’s College London.

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni. 2011. Conditionals in dynamic syntax. In R. Kempson et al. (eds.), 237–287. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni. 2012. Review of J. Ginzburg (2012) The Interactive Stance. Folia Linguistica 47(1). 293–316.

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni. 2013a. A dynamic perspective on left-right asymmetries: CLLD and clitic doubling in Greek. In G. Webelhuth et al. (eds.), Rightward movement in a comparative perspective, 321–368. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni. 2013b. Grammar as action in language and music. In M. C. Orwin & R. Kempson (eds.) Language, music and interaction, 91–132. London: College Publications.Google Scholar

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni. to appear. Quotation in dialogue. In P. Saka & M. Johnson (eds.) The pragmatics of quotation. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni. 2016. The case of non-sentential speech acts. Ms University of Osnabrueck.

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni, Ronnie Cann & Ruth Kempson 2013a. Coordination in dialogue: Subsentential speech and its implications. In L. Goldstein (ed.) Brevity, 53–73. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni, Ruth Kempson, Christine Howes & Arash Eshghi 2013b. On making syntax dynamic: The challenge of compound utterances and the architecture of the grammar. In I. Wachsmuth et al. (eds.), Alignment in communication: Towards a new theory of communication, 58–85. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni & Ruth Kempson. 2015. Joint utterances and the (Split-)Turn Taking puzzle. In J. L. Mey & A. Capone (eds.), Interdisciplinary Studies in Pragmatics, Culture and Society, 703–743. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni & Ruth Kempson. 2016. Reporting, dialogue, and the role of grammar. In A. Capone et al. (eds.), Indirect reports and pragmatics, 115–150. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Gregoromichelaki, Eleni, Ruth Kempson, Matthew Purver, Gregory J. Mills, Ronnie Cann, Wilfried Meyer-Viol & Patrick G. T. Healey. 2011. Incrementality and intention-recognition in utterance processing. Dialogue and Discourse 2(1). 199–233.Google Scholar

  • Grice, Paul. 1975. Logic and conversation. Syntax and Semantics 3. 41–58.Google Scholar

  • Guhe, Markus. 2007. Incremental conceptualization for language production. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar

  • Hausser, Roland 1989. Computation of language. Berlin & New York: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Hawkins, John A. 1994. A performance theory of order and constituency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Hilbert, David & Paul Bernays. 1939. Grundlagen der Mathematik I-II. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Horton, William & Richard Gerrig. 2016. Revisiting the memory-based processing approach to common ground. In S. Brown-Schmitt, W. Horton and M. Duff (eds.). Memory and common ground processes in language use, Topics in Cognitive Science. doi:.Crossref

  • Hough, Julian. 2015. Modelling incremental self-repair processing in dialogue. Ph.D. Queen Mary University of London.

  • Hough, Julian & Matthew Purver. 2014. Probabilistic Type Theory for Incremental Dialogue Systems. EACL workshop Type Theory and Natural Language Semantics (TTNLS), Gothenburg, April 2014.

  • Howes, Christine, Patrick Healey, Matthew Purver & Arash Eshghi. 2011. On incrementality in dialogue: Evidence from compound contributions. In Dialogue and Discourse 2.1. 279–311.

  • Jaszczolt, Kasia. 2005. Default semantics: Foundations of a computational theory of acts of communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Jaszczolt, Kasia M., Eleni Savva & Michael Haugh. 2015. The individual and the social path of interpretation: The case of incomplete disjunctive questions. In A. Capone & J. L. Mey (eds.), Interdisciplinary studies in pragmatics, culture and society, 251–283. Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Kamp, Hans. 1981. A theory of truth and semantic representation. In J. Groenendijk et al. (eds.), Formal methods in the study of language, 277–322. Amsterdam: Mathematisch Centrum.Google Scholar

  • Kamp, Hans & Uwe Reyle. 1993. From discourse to logic. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Kaplan, D. 1989. Demonstratives: An essay on the semantics, logic, metaphysics, and epistemology of demonstratives and other indexicals. In I. Almog et al. (eds.), Themes from Kaplan, 481–563. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Karttunen, Lauri 1969. Pronouns and variables. In R. Binnick et al. (eds.), Papers from the fifth regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 108–116. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.Google Scholar

  • Kempen, Gerard. 2014. Prolegomena to a neurocomputational architecture for human grammatical encoding and decoding. Neuroinformatics 12. 111–142.Google Scholar

  • Kempen, Gerard, Nomi Olsthoorn & Simone Sprenger. 2012. Grammatical workspace sharing during language production and language comprehension. Language and Cognitive Processes 27(3). 345–380.Google Scholar

  • Kempson, Ruth. 2016. Syntax as the dynamics of language understanding. In K. Allan (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Linguistics, 135–152. Abingdon & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Kempson, Ruth, Ronnie Cann, Arash Eshghi, Eleni Gregoromichelaki & Matthew Purver. 2015. Ellipsis. In S. Lappin & C. Fox (eds.), Handbook of Contemporary Semantics, 2nd edn., 114–140. Chichester: Wiley-BlackwellGoogle Scholar

  • Kempson, Ruth & Jieun Kiaer. 2010. Multiple long-distance scrambling: Syntax as reflections of processing. Journal of Linguistics 46. 127–192.Google Scholar

  • Kempson, Ruth, Andrew Gargett & Eleni Gregoromichelaki. 2007. Clarification requests: An incremental account. In Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue (Decalog 2007).

  • Kempson, Ruth, Eleni Gregoromichelaki & Christine Howes (eds.). 2011. Dynamics of lexical interfaces. Chicago: CSLI Press.Google Scholar

  • Kempson, Ruth, Eleni Gregoromichelaki & Stergios Chatzikyriakidis. 2013. Joint utterances in Greek and English: Implications for linguistic modelling. In M. Stavrou (ed.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics of Aristotle University 2012. 107–129. Thessaloniki: Institute of Modern Greek Studies, Aristotle University.Google Scholar

  • Kempson, Ruth, Wilfried Meyer-Viol & Dov Gabbay. 2001. Dynamic syntax: The flow of language understanding. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Kobele, Gregory, 2012a. Eliding the derivation: A minimalist formalization of ellipsis. In S. Müller (ed.), Proceedings of the HPSG 2012 Conference, 307–324. Daejeon: Chungnam National University. Stanford: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar

  • Kobele, Gregory. 2012b. Ellipsis: Computation of. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 3(3). 411–418.Google Scholar

  • Kobele, Gregory. 2015. LF-copying without LF. Lingua 166. 236–259.Google Scholar

  • Lahiri, Aditi & Frans Plank. 2010. Phonological phrasing in Germanic: The judgement of history, confirmed through experiment. Transactions of the Philological Society 108. 370–398.Google Scholar

  • Larsson, Staffan. 2011. The TTR perceptron: Dynamic perceptual meanings and semantic coordination. Proceedings of the 15th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue (SemDial 2011 – Los Angelogue), 140–148.

  • Lerner, Gene H. 2004. Collaborative turn sequences. In G. H. Lerner (ed.), Conversation analysis: Studies from the first generation, 225–256. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Lewis, Shevaun & Colin Phillips. 2015 Aligning grammatical theories and language processing models. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 44(1). 27–46.Google Scholar

  • Marr, David 1982. Vision. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar

  • Merchant, Jason. 2005. Fragments and ellipsis. Linguistics and Philosophy 27(6). 661–738.Google Scholar

  • Merchant, Jason. 2015. Ellipsis. In T. Kiss & A. Alexiadou (eds.), Handbook of contemporary syntax, 2nd edn. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Meyer-Viol, Wilfried. 1995. Instantial logic. PhD. University of Utrecht.

  • Milkowski, Marcin. 2013. Explaining the computational mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Mills, Gregory J. 2014. Dialogue in joint activity: Complementarity, convergence and conventionalization. New Ideas in Psychology 32. 158–173.Google Scholar

  • Mills, Gregory J. & Eleni Gregoromichelaki 2010. Establishing coherence in dialogue: Sequentiality, intentions and negotiation. In Proceedings of the 10th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, SemDial 10 (PozDial). Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, 17–24.

  • Milward, David. 1994 Dynamic dependency grammar. Linguistics and Philosophy 17(6). 561–605.Google Scholar

  • Morgan, Jerry 1973. Sentence Fragments and the Notion ‘Sentence’. In B. Kachru et al. (eds.), Issues in linguistics, 719–751. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar

  • Morgan, Jerry 1989. Sentence fragments revisited. In R. Graczyk & C. Wiltshire (eds.), CLS 25: Parasession on language and context, 228–241. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.Google Scholar

  • Napoli, Donna Jo. 1982. Initial material deletion in English. Glossa 16(1). 85–111.Google Scholar

  • Nordlinger, Rachel. 1998. Constructive Case: Evidence from Australian Languages. Stanford: CSLI Press.Google Scholar

  • O’Grady, William. 2013. The illusion of language acquisition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 3(3). 253–285.Google Scholar

  • Phillips, Colin. 1996 Order and structure. Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Piccinini, Gualtiero & Carl Craver. 2011 Integrating psychology and neuroscience: Functional analyses as mechanism sketches. Synthese 183(3). 283–311.Google Scholar

  • Pickering, Martin & Simon Garrod. 2013. An integrated theory of language production and comprehension. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(4). 329–347.Google Scholar

  • Poesio, Massimo & Hannes Rieser. 2010. Completions, co-ordination and alignment in dialogue. Dialogue and Discourse 1. 1–89.Google Scholar

  • Pullum, Geoffrey K. & Barbara C. Scholz. 2001. On the distinction between model-theoretic and generative-enumerative syntactic frameworks. In P. de Groote et al. (eds.), Logical aspects of computational linguistics, 17–43. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Pulvermüller, Friedemann 2010. Brain embodiment of syntax and grammar. Brain and Language 112(3). 167–179.Google Scholar

  • Pulvermüller, Friedemann, Rachel Moseley, Natalia Egorova, Zuabaida Shebani & Vèronique Boulenger. 2014. Motor cognition-motor semantics: Action perception theory of cognition and communication. Neuropsychologia 34. 602–619.Google Scholar

  • Purver, Matthew, Ronnie Cann & Ruth Kempson. 2006. Grammars as parsers: Meeting the dialogue challenge. Research on Language and Computation 4. 289–326.Google Scholar

  • Purver, Matthew & Jonathan Ginzburg. 2004. Clarifying noun phrase semantics. Journal of Semantics 21. 283–339.Google Scholar

  • Purver, Matthew, Eleni Gregoromichelaki, Wilfried Meyer-Viol & R. Cann. 2010. Splitting the I’s and Crossing the You’s: Context, Speech Acts and Grammar. In Proceedings of Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue 2010, SemDial 2010 (PozDial), Poznan, Poland, 43–50.

  • Matthew Purver, Arash Eshghi & Julian Hough. 2011. Incremental semantic construction in a dialogue system. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS). Stroudsburg PA: Association for Computational Linguistics.Google Scholar

  • Matthew Purver, Julian Hough & Eleni Gregoromichelaki. 2014. Dialogue and compound contributions. In A. Stent & S. Bangalore (eds.), Natural language generation in interactive systems, 63–92. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Ross, Haj 1967. Constraints on variables in syntax. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar

  • Recanati, François. 2010. Truth-conditional pragmatics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar

  • Sag, Ivan. 1976. Deletion and logical form. Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Sato, Yo. 2011. Local ambiguity, search strategies and parsing in DS. In R. Kempson et al. (eds.), 201–228. Chicago: CSLI Press.

  • Sperber, Dan & Deirdre Wilson. 1986. Relevance: Communication and cognition, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Stabler, Edward P. 1991. Avoid the pedestrians paradox. In R. C. Berwick et al. (eds.), Principle-based parsing, 199–237. Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar

  • Stabler, Edward P. 2013. Two models of minimalist, incremental syntactic analysis. Topics in Cognitive Science 5. 611–633.Google Scholar

  • Stainton, Robert. 2006. Words and thoughts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Stalnaker, Robert. 2014. Context and content. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Steedman, Mark. 1992. Grammars and processors. University of Pennsylvania Department of Computer and Information Science Technical Report No. MS-CIS–92–53.

  • Steedman, Mark. 1996. Surface structure and interpretation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Steedman, Mark. 2000. The syntactic process. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Stokhof, Martin & Michiel van Lambalgen. 2011. Abstractions and idealisations: The construction of modern linguistics. Theoretical Linguistics 37(1-2). 1–26.Google Scholar

  • Villiers, Jill G. De & Helen B. Tager Flusberg. 1975. Some facts one simply cannot deny. Journal of Child Language 2(02). 279–286.Google Scholar

  • Weir, Andrew. 2014. Fragments and clausal ellipsis. Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Amherst.

  • Yanofsky, Nancy. 1978. NP Utterances. In D. L. Waltz (ed.), Papers from the fourteenth regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 491–502. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2016-10-06

Published in Print: 2016-10-01

Citation Information: Theoretical Linguistics, Volume 42, Issue 3-4, Pages 203–276, ISSN (Online) 1613-4060, ISSN (Print) 0301-4428, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tl-2016-0011.

Export Citation

©2016 by De Gruyter Mouton.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Jonathan Ginzburg and Dimitra Kolliakou
Topics in Cognitive Science, 2018
Wei Liu and Ruth Kempson
Transactions of the Philological Society, 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in