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International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines

Ed. by Sherbaum, Valery / Erenburg, Vladimir

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.863

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SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.211
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Volume 35, Issue 4


Reasons for Triple-Funding of the Jet-Engine-Industry to Meet 2020–2040 6th-Gen-Challenge: Counter-Air Penetration, CAP

“Perfection of means and confusion of goals characterize our age”, Einstein DictumJet-Jet Engine Steered Force Multipliers v. China Drone SwarmingSHARING 5TH-Gen swarming terms with engine industry by Pictorialand Alphabetical Glossary

Benjamin Gal-Or
Published Online: 2018-11-08 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tjj-2018-9014


I often open my lectures with a question: Do you agree that as speed goes down in any landing, the vertical tail fails to orient the nose back to the runway under strong side winds while ONLY side deflecting jet-engine-steering (JES) can safely re-orient it to safe landing? Just facts, less opinions; And if you do, you accept the 1ST-element of jetonautics defined by 12 figures below, text and references 1 to 48.

Keywords: funding penetrating-counter-air; jet engine steering UCAVs; jetonautics; 6TH-generation

References and Notes

  • 1.

    CITATION: Forward by USAF Chief Scientist defines “Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft” by Benjamin Gal-Or, “LANDMARK BOOK”. Published by Springer Verlag, N.Y. and Heidelberg, 1989-present, multiple reprints. ISBN 0387-97,161-0, 3-540-87,161-0, TL685.3.G23 1989, 629.I34ʹ353-de20, 89-21,797. 237 references. 182 drawings.

  • 2.

    CITATION: U.S. AIR FORCE & NATO review from U.S., UK, Germany and JAPAN: “Benjamin Gal-Or & Wolfgang Herbst have influenced the direction of fighter aircraft design.” “Many of Gal-Or’s ideas, and those of Herbst, are now being tested and flown operationally” “Their technology will offer new challenges — Solving the inevitable human points problems that will emerge, involve questioning established doctrine and reaching for innovative and imaginative solutions.” Naval Post Graduate School, Introduction; ISBN 92-837—1065-7; RTO-EN-12, RTO-TR-015/HFM-015.

  • 3.

    Gal-Or, B. with Lijun Qian and E. Kreindler, Minimum-time maneuvers of thrust-vectored aircraft; Journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics, Mar 1998.

  • 4.

    EDITORIAL: Jet Engine Steering (JES) – The new master of advanced flight control; Civilizing military JES technology maximizes flight safety and allows pilot recovery when AOOF fails to prevent a crash; Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 35(2):95–99, DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2018-9010. May 2018.

  • 5.

    Scientific mistakes that lead to denials of post-stall-flight by JES and its benefits: (1) First in Israel: with added compliments: “nonsense”, “you cannot fly post stall”, “read the textbooks”, “you bring shame on the Technion for such lunatic ideas”, “you should be fired for that nonsense”; (2) same: with Shidlovski’s Turbomeca in France and in Israel; (3) same: RR, less complements, in a meeting, Coventry, UK. Cf. 24, 26, 48 below and Figure 2.

  • 6.

    “Israelis Flight Test Jet-Powered RPV (Unmanned, Radio Controlled JES-Air-Vehicle) Fitted With Thrust Vectoring Nozzles”, AVIATION WEEK, May 18, p. 21, 1987; 30th May 1987.

  • 7.

    “ISRAEL FLIES VECTORING RPV”, FLIGHT INT’L, 30th May 1987; “Israel”, “RPVs”, JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT. 1987. [First-time post-stall flight in the history of aviation of JES-STEALTH air vehicles – conducted at Megiddo Airfield, Israel, up to 170 AoA via first yaw-pitch-roll-JES combat Maneuvers including the first Performance of the post-stall “COBRA”].

  • 8.

    THRUST VECTOR CONTROL EYED FOR TRANSPORT, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 28th August 1995.

  • 9.

    Gal-Or, B, “Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control”, AEROSPACE AMERICA, April, 1996.

  • 10.

    EDITORIAL: Global needs for Jet-Engine-Steered (JES) strike drones vs. lack of updated textbooks to design 6th generation UCLASS due to UCAV failure. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 32(3), Jan 2015. DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2015-1001.

  • 11.

    EDITORIAL: RE-EDUCATING THE JET-ENGINE RESEARCHERS TO STAY RELEVANT, should follow changing uses of small and large jet engines, especially those anticipated to be used by/in the next generation. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 33(2), July 2016; DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2016-5001.

  • 12.

    CITATION: “DESIGN PROJECT AT SIX UNIVERSITIES”: “Steps are being taken by major companies to take advantage of this. For instance, General Electric has been creating an axisymmetric vectoring exhaust nozzle. NASA and the United State Navy have been designing similar systems for controlling the direction of the exhaust.” Citing Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Editorials. https://www.researchgate.net/

  • 13.

    Gal-Or, B., The Fundamental Concepts of Vectored Propulsion, AIAA J. Propulsion and Power, 6, 747–757, 1990;

  • 14.

    Gal-Or, B., Maximizing Post-Stall, Thrust-Vectoring Agility and Control Power, AIAA J. Aircraft, 29, 647–651, 1992;

  • 15.

    Gal-Or, B., Thrust Vectoring: Theory, Laboratory, and Flight Tests, AIAA J. Propulsion & Power, 9, 51 - 58, 1993;

  • 16.

    Gal-Or, B., Upgraded, Completely Vectored F-22, USAF-AFOSR-EOARD, CONTRACT F61708-92-W, Report Date: 28th February 1993.

  • 17.

    EDITORIAL: JET ENGINE STEERING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERS. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 31(4):277–285, Dec 2014; DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2014-1001.

  • 18.

    EDITORIAL: FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: THE JES-revolution in Air-&-Sea-Propulsion Science and R&D; Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Jan 2014. DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2014-1000.

  • 19.

    EDITORIAL: FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: Fleets of low-cost, stealth, jet-steered drones are designed to fly ahead of fighter aircraft and bombers into congested regions. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Jan 2013.

  • 20.

    EDITORIAL: FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: Joint Design Team induce F-35 run-away costs, delays and performance compromises. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Sep 2011.

  • 21.

    EDITORIAL: FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: Air, Land and Marine applications of Jet Engine Steering aka as 3D thrust vectoring flight control or 2D-water TVC of super-agile boats or super-agile Littoral Combat Ships, [LCS]. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Apr 2011.

  • 22.

    EDITORIAL: FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: JES for advanced Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles, [JES-UCAV.]. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Mar 2010.

  • 23.


  • 24.

    Gal-Or, B., Review of the debate and the development of jet engine steering aka thrust vectoring technology; Journal of Thermal Science, China, Mar 1998.

  • 25.

    CITATION; “The benefits of JES to fighter aircraft agility and to close-range combat ability, are now well recognized; several fighters with JES (e. g., F22, SU-37/30 MKI) are soon to be operational. Gal-or (Gal-Or, 1998). Classes of new aircraft controllability domains have been defined recently (Gal-Or, 1994; Gal-Or, Sherbaum and Lichtsinder, 1995; Gal-Or, 1995). A remotely piloted, reduced-scale Boeing 727 ‘With both AOOF and JES was flight tested in May 1995 to demonstrate the potentials for low-weight, add-on JES-kits for catastrophic failure prevention (Gal-Or, 1996)’; Also “a missile equipped with JES can effectively control its acceleration direction when the missile built only with aero fins fails, then maneuverability/controllability can be greatly enhanced by JES. Reference: Design of optimal midcourse guidance sliding-mode control for missiles with TVC”. Citing Id.

  • 26.

    Gal-Or, B., An Old-New European debate on thrust vectoring, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Jan 1997.

  • 27.


  • 28.

    Gal-Or, B, Proposed flight testing standards for engine thrust vectoring to maximize kill ratio, post-stall agility and flight safety, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Dec 1995.

  • 29.

    Gal-Or, B., Thrust-Vectoring of Converging-Diverging Nozzles, AIAA J. of Propulsion and Power, 16, 202–206, 2000.

  • 30.


  • 31.

    CITATION: “Gal-Or has shown that TV control [JES], being nearly independent of airflow around the aircraft, can be used to expand the flight domain beyond stall barrier, where aerodynamic controls lose much of their effectiveness.” High-Alpha Trim and Stability Analysis of Aircraft Closed-loop Dynamics With Control Saturation, CITING: Fundamentals and similarity transformations of vectored aircraft. Id.

  • 32.

    Gal-Or, B, MATHEMATIAL PHENOMENOLOGY FOR THRUST VECTORING–INDUCED AGILITY COMPARISONS, Deficiencies vs. compromises regarding basic rules for maximization of jet-deflection rates are formulated. Journal of Aircraft, Mar 1993.

  • 33.

    Gal-Or, B., THRUST VECTORING [JES] – THEORY, LABORATORY, and FLIGHT TESTS, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Jan 1993.

  • 34.

    Gal-Or, B., “Novel, Post-Stall, Thrust-Vectored F-15 RPVs: Laboratory and Flight Tests” Funded by USAF 1990, 188 pages, (Canarded and Canard-less F-15 1/7-scaled prototypes were tested)

  • 35.

    Gal-Or, B., “Tailless Vectored Fighters: Theory, Laboratory and Flight Tests”, USAF, 196 pages, 15th July 1991.

  • 36.

    Gal-Or, B., “Vectorable Inlets/Nozzles and Tailless Flying Models vs. Pilot’s Tolerances Affecting Maximum Post-Stall Vectoring Agility”; USAF, 238 pages;

  • 37.

    Gal-Or, B., “Tailless Vectored Fighters: Theory, Laboratory and Flight Tests”, USAF, WPAFB, Ohio, USA, AFOSR FY 1456-8,905,052, 196 pages, 15th July 1991.

  • 38.

    Gal-Or, B., “Dynamic Scaling, Pilot v. G-Loads under post-stall Maneuvers with vectored fighters”, Funded series of projects in Israel by USAF; E. g., (i) San Antonio, BAFB, 1990, submitted to USAF Colonel J. Tedor team; (ii) “Dynamic Scaling of Prototypes Using Radius of Gyration Method: Theory, Laboratory and Flight Tests”, REPORT #I to USAF Capt. J. Wigle (30th September 1991); (iii) REPORT #II to USAF Dr D. W. Repperger, AL/WPAFB (30th September 1991); (iv) Report to USAF Col. J. Tedor, Deputy Director, Human Systems Division, BAFB, TX; USAF Special Project, SPC-91-4003, AF/AFOSR/EOARD, 141 pages;

  • 39.

    Gal-Or, B, Classified Reports to Lockheed-Martin/General Dynamics, Ft Worth, TX, via Spence E. Peters, Tel. 817-935-1588, Main: 817-777-2000, E-Mail: Spence.e.pters@LMCO.com and Dorsett, both have maintained mutual visits during the longest cooperation programs in which all imported to the U.S. SACOM/JES/STVS technologies were inter alia provided to Lockheed Martin/GD up to about 1997;

  • 40.

    Gal-Or, B, Classified Reports to PWA, Manager, Component Technology, R. E. (Bob) Davis, 1987–1994;

  • 41.

    Gal-Or, B, Classified Reports to General Electric, Aircraft Engines to Don Dunbar, Ed Rogala and GE VP Krebs. 1987–1988;

  • 42.

    Gal-Or, B, Agility Benefits of Integrated Aerodynamic & Thrust Vectoring Control, GD/Lockheed-Martin RFP Ref. TECH-RRJ-JK-0001, TIIT-TRDF 160–779, 1993–1995, Progress Report No. 2, 10th February 1995.

  • 43.

    Gal-Or, B., Catastrophic Failure Prevention by Thrust Vectoring, invited Lecture and Proposal to NASA, NASA Dryden, June 1995.

  • 44.

    Gal-Or, B., Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control to Maximize Air Safety, Keynote Lecture; 3rd Int’l Conf. ISIAF, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 2nd September 1996.

  • 45.

    Gal-Or, B., Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control to Maximize Air Safety, Opening Keynote Lecture; 2nd Int’l Seminar on Aeronautics & Education, Warsaw, Poland, 25th November 1996.

  • 46.

    Gal-Or, B., Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control to Maximize Civil Transport safety, Keynote Lecture, Proceedings, 4th Conf., Int’l ISIAF conf., Dresden, Germany, 1999.

  • 47.

    Gal-Or, B., Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control to Maximize Civil Transport Safety, 5th Int´l Symp. Aero Sci., Moscow Russia, Plenary Lecture, Proceeding, TsAGI, 1999.

  • 48.

    Gal-Or, B., “An Old-New European Debate on Thrust Vectoring”, Polskiej Nauki, PRACE Instytutu Lotnictwa, Poland, 152, pp. 3-8, 1998.

  • 49.

    http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/17698/chinas-is-hard-at-work-developing-swarms-of-small-drones-on-multiple-levels; https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/news/features/2016/webt-laser-swarms-drones.html https://www.defenceprocurementinternational.com/features/air/drone-swarms http://insidedefense.com/201403112464029/Inside-Defense-General/Public-Articles/air-force-sets-plan-to-launch-sixth-gen-fighter-program-in-2018/menu-id-926.html; http://aviationweek.com/blog/6th-gen-engines-pratt-rolls-out-ge stays/ https://thediplomat.com/2017/07/securing-us-bases-in-the-pacific-a-new-era-of-instability/ http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/penetrating-counter-air-what-comes-after-the-f-22-raptor-f-18,081/ http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/penetrating-counter-air-what-comes-after-the-f-22-raptor-f-18,081?page=2; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWV6e5qdlWc http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/21324/image-of-chinas-stealthy-dark-sword-fighter-like-combat-drone-emerges

About the article

Published Online: 2018-11-08

Published in Print: 2018-12-19

Citation Information: International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 305–313, ISSN (Online) 2191-0332, ISSN (Print) 0334-0082, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tjj-2018-9014.

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