Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines

Ed. by Sherbaum, Valery / Erenburg, Vladimir

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.863

CiteScore 2018: 0.66

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.211
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.625

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 36, Issue 2


Off-Design Analysis of Transonic Bypass Fan Systems Using Streamline Curvature Through-Flow Method

Sercan Acarer
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, 35620 Çiğli/İzmir, Turkey
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ünver Özkol
Published Online: 2017-02-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tjj-2016-0083


The two-dimensional streamline curvature through-flow modeling of turbomachinery is still a key element for turbomachinery preliminary analysis. Basically, axisymmetric swirling flow field is solved numerically. The effects of blades are imposed as sources of swirl, work input/output and entropy generation. Although the topic is studied vastly in the literature for compressors and turbines, combined modeling of the transonic fan and the downstream splitter of turbofan engine configuration, to the authors’ best knowledge, is limited. In a prior study, the authors presented a new method for bypass fan modeling for inverse design calculations. Moreover, new set of practical empirical correlations are calibrated and validated. This paper is an extension of this study to rapid off-design analysis of transonic by-pass fan systems. The methodology is validated by two test cases: NASA 2-stage fan and GE-NASA bypass fan case. The proposed methodology is a simple extension for streamline curvature method and can be applied to existing compressor methodologies with minimum numerical effort.

Keywords: bypass fan; through-flow; streamline curvature; off-design; performance map

PACS: Computational techniques/fluid dynamics; 47.11.-j


  • 1.

    Cumpsty NA. Compressor aerodynamics, 5th ed. Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company, 2004.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Shahpar S. Optimisation strategies used in turbomachinery design from an industrial perspective. VKI Lecture Series, 2010.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Wu CH. A general theory of three-dimensional flow in subsonic and supersonic turbomachines of axial, radial and mixed-flow types. NACA TN-2604, 1952.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Smith LH. The radial-equilibrium equations of turbomachinery. J Eng Power 1966;88:1–12.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Novak RA. Streamline curvature computing procedures for fluid flow problems. Trans ASME J Eng Power 1967;89:478–90.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6.

    Denton J. Throughflow calculations for transonic axial flow turbines. J Eng Power 1978;100:212–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    Tiwari P, Stein A, Lin Y. Dual-solution and choked flow treatment in a streamline curvature throughflow solver. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2011, Vancouver, Canada, 2011.

  • 8.

    Marsh H. A digital computer program for the through-flow fluid mechanics in an arbitrary turbomachine using a matrix method. British Aeronautical Research Council Reports and Memoranda R. & M. No. 3509, 1968.Google Scholar

  • 9.

    Hirsch C, Warzee G. An integrated quasi-3D finite element calculation program for turbomachinery flows. J Eng Power 1979;101:141–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Petrovic M, Wiedermann A, Banjac M. Development and validation of a new universal through flow method for axial compressors. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2009, Orlando, USA, 2009.

  • 11.

    Spurr A. The prediction of 3D transonic flow in turbomachinery using a combined throughflow and blade-to-blade time marching method. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 1980;2:189–99.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Sturmayr A. Evolution of a 3D structured Navier-Stokes solver towards advanced turbomachinery applications. PhD Thesis, University of Vrije, 2004.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Taddei SR, Larocca F, Bertini F. Euler inverse axisymmetric solution for design of axial flow multistage turbomachinery. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010, Glasgow, UK, 2010.

  • 14.

    Gu F, Anderson M. CFD-based throughflow solver in a turbomachinery design system. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2007, Montreal, Canada, 2007.

  • 15.

    Simon J. Contribution to throughflow modeling for axial-flow turbomachines. PhD Thesis, University of Liege, 2007.Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Casey M, Robinson C. A new streamline curvature throughflow method for radial turbomachinery. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2008, Berlin, Germany, 2008.

  • 17.

    Lieblein S, Roudebush WH. Theoretical loss relations for low-speed two dimensional cascade flow. NACA TN 3662, 1956.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Lieblein S. Incidence and deviation-angle correlations for compressor cascades. Trans ASME J Basic Eng 1960;82:575–84.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19.

    Miller G, Lewis G, Jr., Hartmann M. Shock losses in transonic compressor blade rows. J Eng Power 1961;83:235–42.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    Koch C, Smith L. Loss sources and magnitudes in axial-flow compressors. J Eng Power 1976;98:411–24.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21.

    Adkins G, Smith L. Spanwise mixing in axial-flow turbomachines. J Eng Power 1982;104:97–110.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 22.

    Gallimore S. Spanwise mixing in multistage axial flow compressors: part II – throughflow calculations including mixing. J Turbomach 1986;108:10–16.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 23.

    Wisler D, Bauer R, Okiishi T. Secondary flow, turbulent diffusion, and mixing in axial-flow compressors. J Turbomach 1987;109:455–69.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 24.

    Dunham J. Modelling of spanwise mixing in compressor through-flow computations. Proc Inst Mech Eng 1997;211:243–51.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 25.

    Mönig R, Mildner F, Röper R. Viscous-flow two-dimensional analysis including secondary flow effects. J Turbomach 2001;123:558–67.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 26.

    Wennerstrom AJ. Design of highly loaded axial-flow fans or compressors. Vermont, USA: Concepts Eti, 2001.Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Boyer KM. An improved streamline curvature approach for off-design analysis of transonic compression systems. PhD Thesis, Virginia Polytechhnic Institute and State University, 2001.Google Scholar

  • 28.

    Acarer S, Ozkol U. An extension of the streamline curvature through-flow design method for bypass fans of turbofan engines. Proc IMechE Part G J Aerosp Eng 2017. DOI:. (In Press).CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 29.

    Shan P. A mass addition approach to the bypass turbomachine through flow inverse design problem. J Mech Sci Technol 2008;22:1921–5.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 30.

    Bullock R, Johnsen I. Aerodynamic design of axial flow compressors. NASA SP36, 1965.Google Scholar

  • 31.

    Kleppler J. Technique to predict stage-by-stage, pre-stall compressor performance characteristics using a streamline curvature code with loss and deviation correlations. MSc Thesis, University of Tennessee, 1998.Google Scholar

  • 32.

    Aungier RH. Axial flow compressors: a strategy for aerodynamic design and analysis. New York, USA: ASME Press, 2003.Google Scholar

  • 33.

    Pachidis V. Gas turbine advanced performance simulation. PhD Thesis, Cranfield University, 2006.Google Scholar

  • 34.

    Çetin M, Üçer AŞ, Hirsch C, Serovy GK. Application of modified loss and deviation correlations to transonic axial compressors. AGARD R745, 1987.Google Scholar

  • 35.

    Creveling H. Axial-flow compressor computer program for calculating off-design performance. NASA CR-72472, 1968.Google Scholar

  • 36.

    Urasek D, Gorrell W, Cunnan W. Performance of two-stage fan having low-aspect-ratio first stage rotor blading. NASA TP-1493, 1979.Google Scholar

  • 37.

    Sullivan TJ, Younghans JL, Little DR. Single stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 1: aerodynamic design. NASA CR-134801, 1976.Google Scholar

  • 38.

    Sullivan T, Silverman I, Little D. Single stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 4: fan aerodynamics. NASA CR-134892, 1977.Google Scholar

  • 39.

    Casey M, Gersbach F, Robinson C. An optimization technique for radial compressor impellers. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2008, Berlin, Germany, 2008.

  • 40.

    Zamboni G, Xu L. Fan root aerodynamics for large bypass gas turbine engines: influence on the engine performance and 3D design. Proceedings of ASME Turbo 2009, Florida, USA, 2009.

About the article

Received: 2016-12-28

Accepted: 2017-01-19

Published Online: 2017-02-22

Published in Print: 2019-05-27

The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Citation Information: International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 137–146, ISSN (Online) 2191-0332, ISSN (Print) 0334-0082, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tjj-2016-0083.

Export Citation

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Orçun Kor, Sercan Acarer, and Ünver Özkol
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 2017, Page 095765091773046

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in