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International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines

Ed. by Sherbaum, Valery / Erenburg, Vladimir


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Volume 36, Issue 2

Issues

Jet-Engines Revised Dictionary for the 6th-Generation-R&D in a New Era

How jet-engines-industries’ strategies, designs, R&D and funding are now globally amended

Benjamin Gal-Or
Published Online: 2019-02-19 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tjj-2019-9016

Abstract

New U.S.-DOD guiding instructions for 2019 JEST-R&D funded proposals, are now available, [1]. Past U.S.-decision “not to weaponize” JEST, has induced it to advance Anti-Gliding-Hypersonic-Scramjet-Threats, (GHST), [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. This editorial updates previous ones, [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31], mainly on RE-EDUCATING JET-ENGINE RESEARCHERS TO STAY RELEVANT, especially in JETONAUTIC-POST-STALL-FLIGHT, where AOOF fails, [32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84]. Since 11.06.2018, China has joined the US-Russian jet-engines-steering (JES) global-race by JES-F-22 v. JES-Su-35 and 57 & JES-10B, [73, 74] v. THAAD, Arrow-3, David-Sling global network v. 6th-generation S500, Avangard and other systems, [85, 86].

Keywords: stealth; BVR-WVR; Jetonautics; swarm technology; civilizing military-JES; safest-JES-airliners; post-stall air-combat; kill-ratio; JES-force-multiplier; ramjet; scramjet

References and notes

  • 1.

    Pentagon admits the U.S. is 5 to 10 years away from ability to stop JEST-weapons, https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/how-us-military-wants-shoot-down-russian-or-chinese-hypersonic-missiles-31372; https://spacenews.com/u-s-would-need-a-mega-constellation-to-counter-china-hypersonic-weapons/. https://sputniknews.com/military/201803021062138661-usa-pentagon-russia-weapons-information/.

  • 2.

    Deyong S., Wenyan Song, Jingfeng Ye, Bo Tao, Yanhua Wang, Experimental investigation of reacting flow characteristics in a dual-mode scramjet combustor, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 2017, 34(1), 11-22; DOJ 10.1515/tjj-2015-0013.

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    Gautam C. and K. M. Pandey, Numerical studies on the performance of scramjet combustor with alternating wedge-shaped strut injector, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 2017, 34(1), 11-22; DOJ 10.1515/tjj-2015-0048.

  • 4.

    Junsu Shin and Hong-Gye Sung, Numerical investigation of a model scramjet combustor using DDES, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 2017, 34(1), 75-80, DOJ 10.1515/tjj-2015-0056.

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    Ingenito, A.; Bruno, C. (2010). ”Physics and Regimes of Supersonic Combustion”. AIAA Journal. 48 (3): 515–525. Bibcode:2010AIAAJ.0.48.0.515I. doi:10.2514/1.43652. ISSN 0001-1452.

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    Colaguori, N.; Kidder, B. (2010-05-26). ”Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Scramjet Powers Historic First Flight of X-51A WaveRider”; West Palm Beach, Florida: Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne.

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    Kors, D. L. (1990). ”Experimental investigation of a 2-D dual mode scramjet with hydrogen fuel at Mach 4-6”. 2nd International Aerospace Planes Conference. Orlando, Florida: AIAA. doi:10.2514/MIAPC90.

  • 12.

    Guinan, D. P.; Drake, A.; Andreadis, D.; Beckel, S. A. (2005-04-26). ”United States Patent: 6883330: Variable geometry inlet design for scram jet engine”. USPTO.

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    Harsha, P. T.; Keel, L. C.; Castrogiovanni, A.; Sherrill, R., ”2005-3334: X-43A Vehicle Design and Manufacture”. AIAA/CIRA 13th International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference. Capua, Italy: AIAA. ISBN 978-1624100680.

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    Roudakov, A. S.; Schickhmann, Y.; Semenov, V. L.; Novelli, Ph.; “Flight Testing an Axisymmetric Scramjet - Recent Russian Advances”. 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Graz, Austria: International Astronautical Federation.

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    Roudakov, A. S.; Semenov, V. L.; Kopchenov, Valeriy I.; ”Future Flight Test Plans of an Axisymmetric Hydrogen-Fueled Scramjet Engine on the Hypersonic Flying Laboratory”. 7th International Spaceplanes and Hypersonics, Systems & Technology Conference November 18–22, 1996/Norfolk, Virginia. AIAA.

  • 18.

    Roudakov, A. S.; Semenov, V. L.; “Recent Flight Test Results of the Joint CIAMNASA Mach 6.5 Scramjet Flight Program”. NASA Center for Aero-Space Information (CASI).

  • 19.

    Jerdev, M. A. Roudakov, et al, Russian “GLL Cold” in 1998 “Needle”, Cold-2, involving TsIAM, LII, TsNII-mash, TsAGI, KBKhA, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rocket Engineering Design Bureau, Russian Ministry of Defence, etc. Information sources, Copyright: to authors, http://www.testpilot.ru/russia/tsiam/holod/.

  • 20.

    Smart, M. K.; Hass, N. E.; Paul, A. (2006). ”Flight Data Analysis of the HyShot 2 Scramjet Flight Experiment”. AIAA Journal. 44 (10): 2366-2375. 2006; AIAAJ.44.2366S. doi:10.2514/1.20661. ISSN 0001-1452. Bibcode: 2006 AIAAJ.44.2366S. doi:10.2514/1.20661. ISSN 0001-1452. Billig, Frederick S. (1993). SCRAM - A Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Missile. 29th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. Monterey, California: AIAA. doi:10.2514/MJPC93.

  • 21.

    Editorial, Jet-Engine-Steered (JES), lack of updated textbooks to design 6th-generation air and sea combat vehicles, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 32(3), Jan 2015. DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2015-1001.

  • 22.

    Editorial, FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: JET ENGINES AS PRIME FLIGHT EFFECTORS. THE FIRST KEY DESIGN RULES. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Jul 1999, Dec 2000, Jan 2001 and Jan 2003.

  • 23.

    Editorial, FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: Air, Land and Marine applications of Jet Engine Steering aka as 3D thrust vectoring flight control or 2D-Water-TVC of super-agile boats or super-agile Littoral Combat Ships, [LCS]. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Apr. 2011.

  • 24.

    Editorial, FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: JES for advanced Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles, [JES-UCAV.]. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Mar 2010.

  • 25.

    Editorial, Old-New European debate on thrust vectoring and adverse effects of canards, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Jan 1997. Cf. [33, 34].

  • 26.

    Editorial, RE-EDUCATING THE JET-ENGINE RESEARCHERS TO STAY RELEVANT, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 33(2), July 2016; DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2016-5001.

  • 27.

    Editorial, Jet Engine Steering (JES) – The new master of advanced flight control; Civilizing military JES technology maximizes flight safety and allows pilot recovery when AOOF fails to prevent a crash; Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 35(2):95-99, DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2018-9010. May 2018.

  • 28.

    Editorial, CANCELED UCLASS-UCAV- STRIKE-PROGRAMS, down playing 6th-gen-WVR-JES, Design Team induces F-35 run-away costs & performance compromises. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Sep 2011. Cf. GAO, [69].

  • 29.

    Editorial, JET ENGINE STEERING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERS, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 31(4):277-285, Dec 2014; DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2014-1001.

  • 30.

    Editorial, FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: JES-revolution in Air-Sea Propulsion Science and R&D; Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Jan 2014. DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2014-1000.

  • 31.

    Editorial, FUTURE JET TECHNOLOGIES: Fleets of low-cost, stealth, jet-steered drones designed to fly ahead of fighter aircraft and bombers into congested regions. Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Jan 2013.

  • 32.

    Gal-Or, B., “Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability and Robot Aircraft”; Forward by USAF Chief Scientist: “LANDMARK BOOK”; Springer Verlag, N.Y. and Heidelberg, 1989-present, ISBN 0387-97161-0, 3-540-87161-0, TL685.3.G23 1989, 629.I34ʹ353-de20, 89-21797.

  • 33.

    Gal-Or, B., Review of debates re jet engine steering aka thrust vectoring and adverse effects of canards; Journal of Thermal Science, China, Mar 1998.

  • 34.

    Gal-Or, B., “An Old-New European Debate on Thrust Vectoring and adverse effects of canards”, Polskiej Nauki, PRACE Instytutu Lotnictwa, Poland, 152, pp. 3-8, 1998.

  • 35.

    Aviation Week & Space Technology: “Israelis Flight Test Jet-Powered RPV Fitted With Thrust Vectoring Nozzles [JET-ENGINE-STEERED-(JES)], May 18, p. 21, 1987.

  • 36.

    Aviation Week & Space Technology: more on first 3-D-Vectored-stealth-RPV-prototype performing post-stall Maneuvers, (Figures 3, 4), May 30, 1987; FLIGHT INT’L, May 30, 1987; JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT, 1987.

  • 37.

    Gal-Or, B., “Upgraded, Completely Vectored F-22”, USAF-AFOSR-EOARD, CONTRACT F61708-92-W, UNITED STATES AIR FORCE, Report: February 28, 1993.

  • 38.

    Gal-Or, B. with Lijun Qian and E. Kreindler, Minimum-time maneuvers of thrust-vectored aircraft; Journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics, Mar 1998.

  • 39.

    Gal-Or, Benjamin, Valery Sherbaum and Lichtsinder Michael, U.S.-PATENT No. 5,782,431, on “Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control”, [saving many lives and preventing much damage by simple, add-on, TV devices], It includes review on first proof-of-concept flight test funded by U.S. FAA during 1994-1995, April, 1998.

  • 40.

    Aviation Week & Space Technology: THRUST VECTOR CONTROL EYED FOR TRANSPORT, August 28, 1995.

  • 41.

    AEROSPACE AMERICA, “Civilizing Military Technology for safest civil Flight Control”, 1995.

  • 42.

    Mishra, R.K., J. Thomas, k. srinivasan, v. nandi,, r. bhatt; investigation of HP turbine blade failure in a military turbofan engine; Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 2014 Vol. 34 issue 1, 23-32, DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2015-0049.

  • 43.

    Gal-Or, B., The Fundamental Concepts of Vectored Propulsion, AIAA J. Propulsion and Power, 6, 747-757, 1990.

  • 44.

    Gal-Or, B., Maximizing Post-Stall, Thrust-Vectoring Agility and Control Power, AIAA J. Aircraft, 29, 647-651, 1992.

  • 45.

    Gal-Or, B., Thrust Vectoring: Theory, Laboratory, and Flight Tests, AIAA J. Propulsion & Power, 9, 51-58, 1993.

  • 46.

    Gal-Or, B. with A. Rasputnis, Valery Sherbaum and Michael Lichtsinder, 1991-1999, various reports, patent, [39], and publications on JES-full-scale-tests with hot jet engines, [32 at 53, 76, 77, 109-113, 131, 132, 149], on JES–engine inlets calibrations, flight tests, computer simulations.

  • 47.

    Gal-Or, B., FUNDAMENTALS OF CATASTROPHIC FAILURE PREVENTION BY THRUST VECTORING. AIAA Journal of Aircraft, May 1995. Cf., A remotely piloted, reduced-scale TVC-Boeing 727 flight tested in May 1995 to demonstrate the potentials for low-weight, add-on JES-kits for catastrophic failure prevention (1996)”; Id. and Ref. 39-41.

  • 48.

    Gal-Or, B., Proposed flight testing standards for engine thrust vectoring to maximize kill ratio, post-stall agility and flight safety, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, Dec 1995. Gal-Or, B., Thrust-Vectoring of Converging-Diverging Nozzles, AIAA J. of Propulsion and Power, 16, 202-206, 2000.

  • 49.

    Gal-Or, B., Thrust-Vectoring of Converging-Diverging Nozzles, AIAA J. of Propulsion and Power, 16, 202-206, 2000.

  • 50.

    Gal-Or, B. FUNDAMENTALS and SIMILARITY TRANSFORMATIONS OF VECTORED AIRCRAFT, AIAA. Journal of Aircraft, Jan 1994.

  • 51.

    Mishra, R.K., S. K. Kumar, S. Chandel; Lean blow-out studies in a swirl stabilized annular gas turbine combustor; Effect of fuel particle size on the stability of swirl stabilized flame in gas turbine combustor, Int’l J. Turbo & Jet Engines, 2015, 32(2):117-141, Dec 2014; DOI: 10.1515/tjj-2014-0028; –0027

  • 52.

    Gal-Or, B., MATHEMATICAL PHENOMENOLOGY FOR THRUST VECTORING–INDUCED AGILITY COMPARISONS, Deficiencies vs. compromises regarding basic rules for maximization of jet-deflection rates are formulated. AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Mar 1993.

  • 53.

    Gal-Or, B., THRUST VECTORING [JES] – THEORY, LABORATORY, and FLIGHT TESTS, AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, Jan 1993.

  • 54.

    Gal-Or, B., “Novel, Post-Stall, Thrust-Vectored F-15 RPVs: Laboratory and Flight Tests” Funded since 1987 by USAF, (1) Canarded v. Canard-less, ROUNDED v. RECTANGULAR JES-EXHAUSTS to 1, 2 or 3 COLD-FAN-JET-ENGINES, 1/7-scaled-JES-F-15 flight-testing in abandoned airfield in ISRAEL, [32], (2) F-15-AIR-INLET-to-HOT-OPERATING-JET-ENGINE-MARBORE-II-full-scale-PERFORMANCE, [Id.], (3) SUB-SCALED-F-15-INLET-PERFORMANCE DURING POST-STALL HIGH AOA, 188-page-Report-I, 1987-1992 PROJECTS. PART I of 9 REPORTS ORIGINALLY CLASSIFIED.

  • 55.

    Gal-Or, B., “Tailless Vectored Fighters: Theory, Laboratory and Flight Tests”, USAF funding, WPAFB, Ohio, USA, AFOSR FY 1456-8905052, 196-page-Report-II, July 15, 1991.

  • 56.

    Gal-Or, B., “Tailless Vectored Fighters: Theory, Laboratory and Flight Tests”, USAF funding, 196-page-Report-III, July 15, 1991.

  • 57.

    Gal-Or, B., “Vectorable Inlets/Nozzles and Tailless Flying Models vs. Pilot’s Tolerances Affecting Maximum Post-Stall Vectoring Agility”; USAF funding, 238-page-Report-IV.

  • 58.

    Gal-Or, B., “Dynamic Scaling, Pilot v. G-Loads under post-stall Maneuvers with vectored fighters”, USAF Funded series of projects in Israel E. g., (i) San Antonio, BAFB, 1990, submitted to USAF Colonel J. Tedor team, Report-V.

  • 59.

    Gal-Or, B., “Dynamic Scaling of Prototypes Using Radius of Gyration Method: Theory, Laboratory and Flight Tests”, REPORT #I to USAF Capt. J. Wigle (September 30, 1991), Report-VI; REPORT VII to USAF Dr D. W. Repperger, AL/WPAFB (September 30, 1991), Report-VIII; (iv) Report to USAF Col. J. Tedor, Deputy Director, Human Systems Division, BAFB, TX; USAF Special Project, SPC-91-4003, AF/AFOSR/EOARD, 141-page-Report-IX.

  • 60.

    Gal-Or, B., Classified Reports to Lockheed-Martin/General Dynamics, Ft Worth, TX, via Spence E. Peters, Tel. 817-935-1588, Main: 817-777-2000, E-Mail: Spence.e.pters@LMCO.com and Dorsett, longest funded programs by Lockheed Martin/GD up to about 1997.

  • 61.

    Gal-Or, B., Classified Reports to PWA, Manager, Component Technology, R. E. (Bob) Davis, 1987-1994.

  • 62.

    Gal-Or, B., Classified Reports to General Electric, Don Dunbar, Ed Rogala and GE VP Krebs. 1987-1988.

  • 63.

    Gal-Or, B., Agility Benefits of Integrated Aerodynamic & Thrust Vectoring Control, GD/Lockheed-Martin RFP Ref. TECH-RRJ-JK-0001, TIIT-TRDF 160-779, 1993-1995, Progress Report No. 2, February 10, 1995.

  • 64.

    Gal-Or, B., Catastrophic Failure Prevention by Thrust Vectoring, invited Lecture & Proposal to NASA Dryden, June 1995.

  • 65.

    Gal-Or, B., Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control to Maximize Air Safety, Keynote Lecture; 3rd Int’l Conf. ISIAF, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, September 2, 1996.

  • 66.

    Gal-Or, B., Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control to Maximize Air Safety, Opening Keynote Lecture; 2nd Int’l Seminar on Aeronautics & Education, Warsaw, Poland, November 25, 1996.

  • 67.

    Gal-Or, B., Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control to Maximize Civil Transport safety, Keynote Lecture, Proceedings, 4th Conf., Int’l ISIAF conf., Dresden, Germany, 1999.

  • 68.

    Gal-Or, B., Civilizing Military Thrust Vectoring Flight Control to Maximize Civil Transport Safety, 5th Int´l Symp. Aero Sci., Moscow Russia, Plenary Lecture, Proceeding, TsAGI, 1999.

  • 69.

    U.S. GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING OFFICE, GAO, No. 15-374; 16-389R, etc. [28], vis-à-vis B-21, cf., https://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/the-northrop-grumman-b-21-stealth-bomber-simply-unstoppable-19931?page=0%2C1 UCLASS, F-35.

  • 70.

    INDIA-RUSSIA-TREATY-VOIDED? (I), CF. Figure 9 and April 23, 2018 by Franz Stefa Gady at https://thediplomat.com/2018/04/india-pulls-out-of-joint-stealth-fighter-project-with-russia/, April 23, 2018, [71].

  • 71.

    INDIA-RUSSIA-TREATY-VOIDED? (II), CF. “India has reportedly withdrawn from a 11-year joint program to develop a 5th generation fighter jet with Russia”; “the Sukhoi/HAL Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA), also known in India as the Perspective Multi-role Fighter (PMF).”, [72].

  • 72.

    INDIA-RUSSIA-TREATY-VOIDED? (III), CF. “Neither the Indian nor Russian governments have so far publicly confirmed New Delhi’s decision”, [Id.]. “After evaluating the first PAK FA T-50 [Su-57] prototype (the Russian prototype of the PMF), the [IAF] wanted more than 40 changes addressing, among other things, perceived weaknesses in the plane’s engine, stealth, and weapon-carrying capabilities; http://www.pravdareport.com/russia/economics/15-07-2008/105795-unmanned-0/75, https://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/russia-india-had-plans-build-stealth-fighter-those-plans-are-25592

  • 73.

    HISTORY NOTE 1: “China’s J-10(B) fighter equipped with our JES “was built with Israeli assistance”; “Using this technology, the F-22 Raptor can angle its thrust up to 24 degrees up or down.” “Now China’s J-10 joins this elite club of super-maneuverable fighter jets.” Russian uses JES since mid 1990’s, [21–31]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xApU00KdRLY;https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/a24742661/china’s-j-10-thrust-vector-control/?source=nl&utm_source=nl_pop&utm_medium=email&date=100118 and www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/j-10b-tvc-wows-zhuhai-crowds-with-surprise-performa-453352/;

  • 74.

    HISTORY NOTE 2: China published author’s Review of JES v. canards-debates by its Journal of Thermal Science, Mar 1998, [25, 33, 34], invites Keynote Lecture to Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3rd Int’l Conf. ISIAF, [65], repeated to its top designers at CHENGDU. On November 6, 2018, via JES-J-10B CHINA joins the JES-revolution. https://www.janes.com/article/76804/image-suggests-china-may-be-testing-thrust-vectoring-engine-on-j-10-fighter#; https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/aviation/a24680684/all-the-new-tech-from-chinas-big-airshow/

  • 75.

    HISTORY NOTE 3: Post PST-1987-1st JES-Flight-tests, [36, 37], Russia joins the JES revolution and a new GLOBAL-JES-RACE is established.

  • 76.

    Gal-Or, B., Gold Medal from New York Academy of Sciences for developing New General Relativistic (Einstein’s Gravity Physics) Entropy-Free-School-of-Thermodynamics; was part of 1968-PRESENT, CLASSIFIED RADIATION PHYSICS WORK in Detection of Space-Radiation/Stealth/Stellar/Radar-Radiation-Thermodynamics, [41–68].

  • 77.

    STEALTH DEBATE: According to https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/how-russia-could-someday-shootdown-f-22-f-35-or-b-2-stealth-bomber-35512: “While Moscow makes bold claims about the counter-stealth capabilities of their S-400/S-300 (v. western air defense systems), the fact remains that even if Russian low-frequency search and acquisitions radars can detect and track tactical fighter-sized stealth aircraft, such as the F-22 or F-35, fire control radars operating in C, X and Ku bands cannot paint low observable (LO) jets except at very close ranges.”

  • 78.

    ARROW-3: “U.S. Missile Defense Director: ARROW-3 is more advanced than what we have ever attempted in the U.S. with our programs. … [with] greater flexibility and other aspects, such as propulsion systems.” https://defense-update.com/products/a/arrow3.html; https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/meet-russias-s-500-can-it-kill-f-22-or-f-35-37072;

  • 79.

    Lapin, Yaakov, “Israeli Arrow 3 interceptor test previews upcoming trials in Alaska”.; Jane’s Information Group; drones.html; https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/news/features/2016/webt-laser-swarms- https://www.defenceprocurementinternational.com/features/air/(2018-02-19).

  • 80.

    INF TREATY: Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. on December 8, 1987. It eliminated all nuclear and conventional missiles and their launchers with ranges of 500–1,000 kilometers (short-range) and 1,000–5,500 km (intermediate-range). Russia claims it did not include GHST. https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/1065145/ww3-vladimir-putin-cuba-soviet-union-bases-cold-war-nuclear-donald-trump-spt/.

  • 81.

    U.S. Space Command is established since 12.18. 2018, fxxn.ws/2E9Sawb.

  • 82.

    December 29, 2018, South China Morning POST//www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2142887/now-you-see-it-now-you-dont-china-tests-stealth-invisibility/.

  • 83.

    https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2014/12/nasa-seed-funds-sr-72-hypersonic-drones.html/.

  • 84.

    Converting old-air-force-planes to be stealthy? ttps://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/fleet-j-20s-china-wants-take-old-air-force-planes-and-make-them-stealthy-40052/.

  • 85.

    Stealth-propulsion under water UCAVS, https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/12/china-uses-underwater-drones-in-south-china-sea.html; https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/navy-ships/a22593766/russia-working-on-new-cephalopod-underwater-attack-drone/.

  • 86.

    PRE-6th-gen-Video for beginners on new THAAD, etc. v. S400/S500, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYeasKRb4zU.

About the article

Published Online: 2019-02-19

Published in Print: 2019-05-27


Citation Information: International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 127–136, ISSN (Online) 2191-0332, ISSN (Print) 0334-0082, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tjj-2019-9016.

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