Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

The Linguistic Review

Editor-in-Chief: van der Hulst, Harry

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.463
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.789

CiteScore 2018: 0.69

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.643
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.679

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 37, Issue 1


Exploring Merge: A new form of sideward movement

Yuji Takano
Published Online: 2019-06-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tlr-2019-2033


This paper explores Merge and proposes a new form of sideward movement (double sideward movement) carried out by a new application of External Merge. Double sideward movement occurs in the following way: given a syntactic object S containing XP and YP, Merge applies to XP and YP, and creates {XP, YP} outside S, thus causing XP and YP to undergo sideward movement at the same time. It is argued that multiple clefts (cleft sentences with multiple phrases in the focus position) in Japanese are derived by double sideward movement of the multiple focus phrases and that this derivation is responsible for certain surprising properties of Japanese multiple clefts, some well known and others newly discovered, including the lack of island effects and the presence and absence of clausemate effects. Other consequences are discussed for the nature of operator movement and scrambling as well as for restrictions on the application of Merge.

Keywords: clausemate effects; (double) sideward movement; island effects; Japanese multiple clefts; Merge


  • Abe, Jun. 1993. Binding conditions and scrambling without A/A’ distinction. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut dissertation.Google Scholar

  • Agbayani, Brian, Chris Golston & Toru Ishii. 2015. Syntactic and prosodic scrambling in Japanese. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 33. 47–77.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Aoun, Josef, Lina Choueiri & Norbert Hornstein. 2001. Resumption, movement, and derivational economy. Linguistic Inquiry 32(3). 371–403.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Aoun, Josef & Yen-hui Audrey Li. 2003. Essays on the representational and derivational nature of grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Bošković, Željko. 2017. Tone sandhi in Taiwanese and phasal spell-out. Gengo Kenkyu 152. 31–58.Google Scholar

  • Cho, Sungdai, John Whitman & Yuko Yanagida. 2008. Clefts in Japanese and Korean. Proceedings from the Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society 44(1). 61–77.Google Scholar

  • Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Chomsky, Noam. 2000. Minimalist inquiries: The framework. In Roger Martin, David Michaels & Juan Uriagereka (eds.), Step by step: Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik, 89–155. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Derivation by phase. In Michael Kenstowicz (ed.), Ken Hale: A life in language, 1–52. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Chomsky, Noam. 2008. On phases. In Robert Freidin, Carlos P. Otero & Maria Luisa Zubizarreta (eds.), Foundational issues in linguistic theory: Essays in honor of Jean-Roger Vergnaud, 133–166. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Funakoshi, Kenshi. 2012. On headless XP movement/ellipsis. Linguistic Inquiry 43(4). 519–562.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Hasegawa, Nobuko. 1997. A copula-based analysis of Japanese clefts: Wa-cleft and ga-cleft. Researching and verifying an advanced theory of human language, Grant-in-aid for COE Research, Report (1), 15–38. Chiba: Kanda University of International Studies.Google Scholar

  • Hiraiwa, Ken & Shinichiro Ishihara. 2012. Syntactic metamorphosis: Clefts, sluicing, and in-situ focus in Japanese. Syntax 15(2). 142–180.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hoji, Hajime. 1985. Logical form constraints and configurational structures in Japanese. Seattle, WA: University of Washington dissertation.Google Scholar

  • Hoji, Hajime. 1987. Japanese clefts and chain binding/reconstruction effects. Paper presented at the Sixth West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, University of Arizona, 20–22 March.Google Scholar

  • Hornstein, Norbert. 2001. Move!: A minimalist theory of construal. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Koizumi, Masatoshi. 1995. Phrase structure in minimalist syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT dissertation.Google Scholar

  • Koizumi, Masatoshi. 2000. String vacuous overt verb raising. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 9(3). 227–285.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kuwabara, Kazuki. 1996. Multiple wh-phrases in elliptical clauses and some aspects of clefts with multiple foci. In Masatoshi Koizumi, Masayuki Oishi & Uli Sauerland (eds.), Formal approaches to Japanese Linguistics 2, MIT working papers in Linguistics Vol. 29, 97–116. Cambridge, MA: MIT, Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, MITWPL.Google Scholar

  • Müller, Gereon & Wolfgang Sternefeld. 1993. Improper movement and unambiguous binding. Linguistic Inquiry 24(3). 461–507.Google Scholar

  • Murasugi, Keiko. 1991. Noun phrases in Japanese and English: A study in syntax, learnability, and acquisition. Storrrs, CT: University of Connecticut dissertation.Google Scholar

  • Nunes, Jairo. 2004. Linearization of chains and sideward movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Richards, Norvin. 1998. The principle of minimal compliance. Linguistic Inquiry 29(4). 599–629.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Roberts, Ian. 1990. Some notes on VP-fronting and head government. In Joan Mascaró & Marina Nespor (eds.), Grammar in progress: Glow essays for Henk van Riemsdijk, 387–396. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.Google Scholar

  • Saito, Mamoru. 1994. Additional-wh effects and the adjunction site theory. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 3(3). 195–240.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Saito, Mamoru. 2017. A note on Transfer domains. Nanzan Linguistics Vol. 12, 61–69. Nagoya: Nanzan University, Center for Linguistics.Google Scholar

  • Sohn, Kewn-Won. 1994. Adjunction to argument, free ride and a minimalist program. In Masatoshi Koizumi & Hiroyuki Ura (eds.), Formal approaches to Japanese Linguistics 1, MIT working papers in Linguistics 24, 315–334. Cambridge, MA: MIT, Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, MITWPL.Google Scholar

  • Takano, Yuji. 2002. Surprising constituents. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 11(3). 243–301.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Takano, Yuji. 2007. Making rightward scrambling possible. In Yuko Kawano & Hiromi Takahashi (eds.), Kinjo Gakuin Daigaku ronshu, studies in humanities Vol. 3(2), 17–58. Nagoya: Kinjo Gakuin University.Google Scholar

  • Takano, Yuji. 2013. Notes on movement of antecedents. In Yoichi Miyamoto, Daiko Takahashi, Hideki Maki, Koji Sugisaki & Asako Uchibori (eds.), Deep insights, broad perspectives: Essays in honor of Mamoru Saito, 381–400. Tokyo: Kaitakusha.Google Scholar

  • Takano, Yuji. 2015. Surprising constituents as unlabeled syntactic objects. Nanzan Linguistics 10. 55–73, Nagoya: Nanzan University, Center for Linguistics.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2019-06-25

Published in Print: 2020-02-25

Citation Information: The Linguistic Review, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 7–45, ISSN (Online) 1613-3676, ISSN (Print) 0167-6318, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tlr-2019-2033.

Export Citation

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in