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Translational Neuroscience

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Radial structure of dolphin insula

Manuel Casanova / Juan Trippe / Christopher Tillquist / Andrew Switala
Published Online: 2010-10-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10134-010-0010-2

Abstract

The brain of the bottlenose dolphin exhibits patterns of isocortical parcellation and cytoarchitecture distinct from those seen in primates, yet cell clusters in anterior insula are comparable in scale to module-like cell arrangements found throughout isocortex in other placental mammalian species with long divergent evolutionary histories. This similarity may be due to common ancestry, or to convergence as a result of selective constraints on organization of connections within such modules. Differences reflect alternate arrangements of minicolumns, an elemental cytoarchitectonic motif of isocortex defined by radially oriented pyramidal cell arrays. In contrast with larger modular structures incorporating them, minicolumns have been highly conserved in mammalian evolution. In this study a previously validated imaging method was employed to assess verticality, D, a parameter indicating radial bias of isocortex. Photomicrographs of coronal Nissl-stained sections of dolphin anterior insular cortex were compared with sections from human brains of putatively homologous areas as well as other isocortical areas differing in modular organization. Dolphin insula exhibited a high degree of verticality consistent with conserved minicolumnar organization. Our findings indicate that a basic structural motif of isocortex is synapomorphic in a species of marine mammal exhibiting unique phylogenetically derived isocortical characteristics.

Keywords: Cetaceans; Neocortex; Minicolumns; Pyramidal cells; Tursiops truncatus

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About the article

Published Online: 2010-10-12

Published in Print: 2010-03-01


Citation Information: Translational Neuroscience, ISSN (Online) 2081-6936, ISSN (Print) 2081-3856, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10134-010-0010-2.

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© 2010 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

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