Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Translational Neuroscience

Editor-in-Chief: David, Olivier

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.833
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.247

CiteScore 2017: 1.00

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.428
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.244

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Early-stage visual processing abnormalities in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Joshua Baruth
  • Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Manuel Casanova
  • Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA
  • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Lonnie Sears
  • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Estate Sokhadze
  • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2010-10-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10134-010-0024-9


It has been reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal responses to the sensory environment. For these individuals sensory overload can impair functioning, raise physiological stress, and adversely affect social interaction. Early-stage (i.e. within 200 ms of stimulus onset) auditory processing abnormalities have been widely examined in ASD using event-related potentials (ERP), while ERP studies investigating early-stage visual processing in ASD are less frequent. We wanted to test the hypothesis of early-stage visual processing abnormalities in ASD by investigating ERPs elicited in a visual oddball task using illusory figures. Our results indicate that individuals with ASD have abnormally large cortical responses to task irrelevant stimuli over both parieto-occipital and frontal regions-of-interest (ROI) during early stages of visual processing compared to the control group. Furthermore, ASD patients showed signs of an overall disruption in stimulus discrimination, and had a significantly higher rate of motor response errors.

Keywords: Autism; Event-related potentials; EEG; Visual processing; Evoked potentials

  • [1] American Psychiatric Association diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV TR), 4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 2000 Google Scholar

  • [2] Charman, T., Autism spectrum disorders, Psychiatry, 2008, 7, 331–334. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Gomes, E., Pedroso, F.S., Wagner, M.B., Auditory hypersensitivity in the autistic spectrum disorder, Pro Fono 2008, 20, 279–284. Google Scholar

  • [4] Khalfa, S., Bruneau, N., Rogé, B., Georgieff, N., Veuillet, E., Adrien, J.L., et al., Increased perception of loudness in autism, Hear. Res., 2004, 198, 87–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2004.07.006CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] Ratey, J.J., Johnson, C., The shadow syndromes, Bantam Books, New York,1997 Google Scholar

  • [6] Jeste, S.S., Nelson, C.A. 3rd., Event related potentials in the understanding of autism spectrum disorders: an analytical review, J Autism Dev Disord, 2009, 39, 495–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0652-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7] Luck, S.J., Heinze, H.J., Mangun, G.R., Hillyard, S.A., Visual eventrelated potentials index focused attention within bilateral stimulus arrays. II. Functional dissociation of P1 and N1 components, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1990, 75, 528–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(90)90139-BCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] O’Donnel, B.F., Swearer, J.M., Smith, L.T., Hokama, H., Mccarley, R.W., A topographic study of ERPs elicited by visual feature discrimination, Brain Topogr, 997, 10, 133–143. Google Scholar

  • [9] Coles, M.G.H., Rugg, M.D., Event-related brain potentials: an introduction, In: Rugg, M.D., Coles, M.G.H. (Eds.), Electrophysiology of mind. Event-related brain potentials and cognition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995 Google Scholar

  • [10] Herrmann, C.S., Knight, R.T., Mechanisms of human attention: event related potentials and oscillations, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2001, 25, 465–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634(01)00027-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Pritchard, W. S., Psychophysiology of P300, Psychol Bull, 1981, 89, 506–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.89.3.506CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12] Picton, T.W., The P300 wave of the human event-related potential, J Clin Neurophysiol, 1992, 9, 456–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004691-199210000-00002CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13] Polich, J., Theoretical overview of P3a and P3b, In: Polich, J. (Ed.),Detection of Change: Event-related Potential and fMRI Findings, Kluwer Academic Press, Boston, 2003 Google Scholar

  • [14] Bomba, M.D., Pang, E.W., Cortical auditory evoked potentials in autism: a review, Int J Psychophysiol, 2004, 53, 161–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2004.04.001CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15] Klin, A., Auditory brainstem responses in autism. Brainstem dysfunction of peripheral hearing loss?, J Autism Dev Disord, 1993, 23,15–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01066416CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16] Rosenhall, U., Nordin, V., Brantberg, K., Gillberg, C., Autism and auditory brain stem responses, Ear Hear, 2003, 24, 206–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.AUD.0000069326.11466.7ECrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Bruneau, N., Garreau, B., Roux, S., Lelord, G., Modulation of auditory evoked potentials with increasing stimulus intensity in autistic children, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol Suppl, 1987, 40, 584–589. Google Scholar

  • [18] Lincoln, A.J., Courchesne, E., Harms, L., Allen, M., Sensory modulation of auditory stimuli in children with autism and receptive developmental language disorder: event-related brain potential evidence, J Autism Dev Disord, 1995, 25, 521–539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02178298CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [19] Bruneau, N., Roux, S., Adrien, J., Barthelemy, C., Auditory associative cortex dysfunction in children with autism: Evidence from late auditory evoked potentials (N1 wave-T complex), Clin Neurophysiol, 1999, 110, 1927–1934. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(99)00149-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20] Oades, R. D., Walker, M. K., Geffen, L. B., Stern, L. M., Event-related potentials in autistic and healthy children on an auditory choice reaction time task, Int J Psychophysiol, 1988, 6, 25–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-8760(88)90032-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21] Ferri, R., Elia, M., Agarwal, N., Lanuzza, B., Musumeci, S. A., Pennisi, G., The mismatch negativity and the P3a components of the auditory event-related potentials in autistic lowfunctioning subjects, Clin Neurophysiol, 2003, 114, 1671–1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(03)00153-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22] Seri, S., Cerquiglini, A., Pisani, F., Curatolo, P., Autism in tuberous sclerosis: Evoked potential evidence for a deficit in auditory sensory processing, Neurophysiol, 1999, 110, 1825–1830. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(99)00137-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23] Jansson-Verkasalo, E., Ceponiene, R., Valkama, M., Vainionpää, L., Laitakari, K., Alku, P., Suominen, K., Näätänen, R., Deficient speechsound processing, as shown by the electrophysiologic brain mismatch negativity response, and naming ability in prematurely born children, Neurosci. Lett., 2003, 348, 5–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(03)00641-4CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Lepistö, T., Kujala, T., Vanhala, R., Alku, P., Huotilainen, M., Näätänen, R., The discrimination of and orienting to speech and non-speech sounds in children with autism, Brain Res., 2005, 1066, 147–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.10.052CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25] Doninger, G.M., Foxe, J.J., Murray, M.M., Higgins, B.A., Snodgrass, J.G., Schroeder, C.E., et al., Activation timecourse of ventral visual stream object-recognition areas: High density electrical mapping of perceptual closure processes, J Cogn Neurosci, 2000, 12, 615–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/089892900562372CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [26] Foxe, J.J., Doninger, G.M., Javitt, D.C., Early visual processing deficits in schizophrenia: Impaired P1 generation revealed by high density electrical mapping, Neuroreport, 2001, 12, 3815–3820. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200112040-00043CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27] Spencer, K.M., Dien, J., Donchin, E., Spatiotemporal analysis of the late ERP responses to deviant stimuli, Psychophysiology, 2001, 38, 343–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0048577201000324CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28] Butler, P.D., Javitt, D.C., Early-stage visual processing deficits in schizophrenia, Curr Opin Psychiatry, 2005, 18, 151–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001504-200503000-00008CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29] Tendolkar, I., Ruhrmann, S., Brockhaus-Dumke, A., Pauli, M., Mueller, R., Pukrop, R., et al., Neural correlates of visuo-spatial attention during an antisaccade task in schizophrenia: an ERP study, Int. J. Neurosci., 2005, 115, 681–698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207450590887475CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30] Vohs, J.L., Hetrick, W.P., Kieffaber, P.D., Bodkins, M., Bismark, A., Shekhar, A., et al., Visual event-related potentials in schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia, J Abnorm Psychol, 2008, 117, 119–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.117.1.119CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31] Courchesne, E., Courchesne, R. Y., Hicks, G., Lincoln, A. J., Functioning of the brain-stem auditory pathway in nonretarded autistic individuals, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1985a, 61, 491–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(85)90967-8CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [32] Courchesne, E., Lincoln, A. J., Kilman, B. A., Galambos, R., Eventrelated brain potential correlates of the processing of novel visual and auditory information in autism, J Autism Dev Disord, 1985b, 15, 55–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01837899CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33] Courchesne, E., Lincoln, A. J., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Elmasian, R., Grillon, C., Pathophysiologic findings in nonretarded autism and receptive developmental language disorder, J Autism Dev Disord, 1989, 19, 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02212714CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34] Verbaten, M. N., Roelofs, J. W., van Engeland, H., Kenemans, J. K., Slangen, J. L., Abnormal visual event-related potentials of autistic children, J Autism Dev Disord, 1991, 21, 449–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02206870CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [35] Kemner, C., Verbaten, M. N., Cuperus, J. M., Camfferman, G., Van Engeland, H., Visual and somatosensory event-related brain potentials in autistic children and three different control groups, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1994, 92, 225–237 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-5597(94)90066-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36] Kemner, C., van der Gaag, R. J., Verbaten, M., van Engeland, H., ERP differences among subtypes of pervasive developmental disorders, Biol. Psychiatry, 1999, 46, 781–789. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(99)00003-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37] Townsend, J., Westerfield, M., Leaver, E., Makeig, S., Jung, T., Pierce, K., et al., Event-related brain response abnormalities in autism: Evidence for impaired cerebello-frontal spatial attention networks, Brain Res Cogn Brain Res, 2001, 11, 127–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6410(00)00072-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [38] Hoeksma, M. R., Kemner, C., Kenemans, J. L., van Engeland, H., Abnormal selective attention normalizes P3 amplitudes in PDD, J Autism Dev Disord, 2006, 36, 643–654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0102-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39] Sokhadze, E., El-Baz, A., Baruth, J., Mathai, G., Sears, L., Casanova, M., Effects of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on gamma frequency oscillations and event-related potentials during processing of illusory figures in autism, J Autism Dev Disord, 2009b, 39, 619–634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0662-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [40] Sokhadze, E., Baruth, J., Tasman, A., Sears, L., Mathai, G., El-Baz, A., et al., Event-related potential study of novelty processing abnormalities in autism, Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 2009a, 34, 37–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-009-9074-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [41] Haxby, J.V., Hoffman, E.A., Gobbini, M.I., Human neural systems for face recognition and social communication, Biol. Psychiatry, 2002, 51, 59–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01330-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [42] Posner, M.I., Petersen, S.E., The attention system of the human brain, Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 1990, 13, 25–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ne.13.030190.000325CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [43] Clark, V.P., Fan, S., Hillyard, S.A., Identification of early visual evoked potential generators by retinotopic and topographic analyses, Hum Brain Mapp, 1995, 2, 170–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.460020306CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [44] Mangun, G. R., Neural mechanisms of visual selective attention, Psychophysiology, 1995, 32, 4–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1995.tb03400.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [45] Seeck, M., Michel, C.M., Mainwaring, N., Cosgrove, R., Blume, H., Ives, J., et al., Evidence for rapid face recognition from human scalp and intracranial electrodes, Neuroreport, 1997, 8, 2749–2754. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001756-199708180-00021CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [46] Herrmann, M.J., Ehlis, A.C., Ellgring, H., Fallgatter, A.J., Early stages (P100) of face perception in humans as measured with event-related potentials (ERPs), J. Neural Transm., 2005, 112, 1073–1081. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-004-0250-8CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [47] Heinze, H.J., Mangun, G., Burchert, W., Hinrichs, H., Scholz, M., Münte, T.F., et al., Combined spatial and temporal imaging of brain activity during visual selective attention in humans, Nature, 1994, 372, 543–546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/372543a0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [48] Hillyard, S.A., Mangun, G.R., Woldorff, M.G., Luck, S.J., Neural mechanisms mediating selective attention, In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The cognitive neurosciences. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995 Google Scholar

  • [49] Hopf, J.M., Vogel, E., Woodman, G., Heinze, H.J., Luck, S.J., Localizing visual discrimination processes in time and space, J. Neurophysiol., 2002, 88, 2088–2095. Google Scholar

  • [50] Vogel, E.K., Luck, S.J., The visual N1 component as an index of a discrimination process, Psychophysiology, 2000, 37, 190–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0048577200981265CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [51] Gomez-Gonzales, C. M., Clark, V. P., Fan, S., Luck, S., Hillyard, S. A., Sources of attention-sensitive visual event-related potentials, Brain Topogr, 1994, 7, 41–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01184836CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [52] Yamazaki, T., Kamijo, K., Kenmochi, A., Fukuzumi, S., Kiyuna, T., Kuroiwa, Y., Multiple equivalent current dipole source localization of visual event-related potentials during oddball paradigm with motor response, Brain Topogr, 2000, 12, 159–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023467806268CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [53] Hillyard, S.A., Hink, R.F., Schwent, V.L., Picton, T.W., Electrical signs of selective attention in the human brain, Science, 1973, 182, 177–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.182.4108.177CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [54] Kenemans, J. L., Kok, A., Smulders, F. T., Event-related potentials to conjunctions of spatial frequency and orientation as a function of stimulus parameters and response requirements, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1993, 88, 51–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-5597(93)90028-NCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [55] Potts, G. F., Liotti, M., Tucker, D. M., Posner, M. I., Frontal and inferior temporal cortical activity in visual target detection: Evidence from high spatially sampled event-related potentials, Brain Topogr, 1996, 9, 3–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01191637CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [56] Potts, G. F., Dien, J., Harty-Speiser, A., McDougl, L. M., Tucker, D. M., Dense sensor array topography of the event related potential to taskrelevant auditory stimuli, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1998, 106, 444–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4694(97)00160-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [57] Le Couteur, A., Lord, C., Rutter, M., The autism diagnostic interview—Revised (ADI-R), Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA, 2003 Google Scholar

  • [58] Wechsler, D., Wechsler intelligence scale for children (4th ed.), Harcourt Assessment, Inc., San Antonio, TX, 2003 Google Scholar

  • [59] Wechsler, D., Wechsler abbreviated scale for intelligence, Harcourt Assessment, Inc., San Antonio, TX, 2004 Google Scholar

  • [60] First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., Williams, J. B. W., Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders—non-patient edition (SCID-NP), New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, 2001 Google Scholar

  • [61] Ferree, T. C., Luu, P., Russell, G. S., Tucker, D. M., Scalp electrode impedance, infection risk, and EEG data quality, Neurophysiol, 2001, 112, 444–536. Google Scholar

  • [62] Perrin, E., Pernier, J., Bertrand, O., Giard, M., Echallier, J. F., Mapping of scalp potentials by surface spline interpolation, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1987, 66, 75–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(87)90141-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [63] Fletcher, E. M., Kussmaul, C. L., Mangun, G. R., Estimation of interpolation errors in scalp topographic mapping, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1996, 98, 422–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(96)95135-4CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [64] Srinivasan, R., Tucker, D. M., Murias, M., Estimating the spatial Nyquist of the human EEG, Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput, 1998, 30, 8–19. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [65] Luu, P., Tucker, D. M. L., Englander, R., Lockfeld, A., Lutsep, H., Oken, B., Localizing acute stroke-related EEC changes: Assessing the effects of spatial undersampling, J Clin Neurophysiol, 2001, 18, 302–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004691-200107000-00002CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [66] American Encephalographic Society, Guidelines for standard electrode position nomenclature, J Clin Neurophysiol, 1991, 8, 200–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004691-199104000-00007CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [67] Kimura, M., Katayama, J., Ohira, H., Schröger, E., Visual mismatch negativity: new evidence from the equiprobable paradigm, Psychophysiology, 2009, 46, 402–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2008.00767.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [68] Casanova, M. F., Buxhoeveden, D. P., Brown, C., Clinical and macroscopic correlates of minicolumnar pathology in autism, J. Child Neurol., 2002a, 17, 692–695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088307380201700908CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [69] Casanova, M. F., Buxhoeveden, D. P., Switala, A. E., Roy, E., Minicolumnar pathology in autism, Neurology, 2002b, 58, 428–432. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [70] Levitt, P., Disruption of interneuron development, Epilepsia, 2005, 46, 22–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.00305.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [71] Casanova, M. F., Neuropathological and genetic findings in autism: The significance of a putative minicolumnopathy, Neuroscientist, 2006, 12, 435–441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073858406290375CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [72] Rubenstein, J.L.R., Merzenich, M.M., Model of autism: increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems, Genes Brain Behav., 2003, 2, 255–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1601-183X.2003.00037.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [73] Mountcastle, V.B., Introduction. Computation in cortical columns, Cereb. Cortex, 2003, 13, 2–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/13.1.2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [74] Casanova, M.F., The neuropathology of autism, Brain Pathol., 2007, 17, 422–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.2007.00100.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [75] Lawrence, Y.A., Kemper, T.L., Baumen, M.L., Blatt, G.J., Parvalbumin-, calbindin-, and calretinin-immunoreactive hippocampal interneuron density in autism, Acta Neurol Scand., 2010, 121, 99–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2009.01234.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [76] Yip, J., Soghomonian, J.J., Blatt, G.J., Increased GAD67 mRNA expression in cerebellar interneurons in autism: implications for Purkinje cell dysfunction, J Neurosci Res., 2008, 86, 525–530. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.21520CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [77] Sokhadze, E., Baruth, J., Tasman, A., Mansoor, M., Ramaswamy, R., Sears, L., et al., Low-frequency repetitive transcranifal magnetic stimulation (rTMS) affects event-related potential measures of novelty processing in Autism, Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 2010, 35, 147–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-009-9121-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2010-10-22

Published in Print: 2010-06-01

Citation Information: Translational Neuroscience, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 177–187, ISSN (Online) 2081-6936, ISSN (Print) 2081-3856, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10134-010-0024-9.

Export Citation

© 2010 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Estate Sokhadze, Eva Lamina, Emily Casanova, Desmond Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, and Manuel Casanova
Behavioral Sciences, 2017, Volume 7, Number 4, Page 79
Veema Lodhia, Curie. J. Suk, Vanessa Lim, Jeff. P. Hamm, and Ian. J. Kirk
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2017, Volume 43-44, Page 76
J.F. Wilson, V. Lodhia, D.P. Courtney, I.J. Kirk, and J.P. Hamm
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2017, Volume 43-44, Page 40
Theresa Veltri, Naira Taroyan, and Paul G Overton
Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2017, Page 026988111769586
Meera E. Modi and Mustafa Sahin
Nature Reviews Neurology, 2017, Volume 13, Number 3, Page 160
Rahul Singh, Ryan C. Turner, Linda Nguyen, Kartik Motwani, Michelle Swatek, and Brandon P. Lucke-Wold
Behavioural Neurology, 2016, Volume 2016, Page 1
K. Kovarski, A. Thillay, E. Houy-Durand, S. Roux, A. Bidet-Caulet, F. Bonnet-Brilhault, and M. Batty
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2016, Volume 46, Number 10, Page 3377
Anam Anzak, Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Sadaquate Khan, Shazia Javed, Steven S. Gill, Keyoumars Ashkan, Harith Akram, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Alexander L. Green, Tipu Aziz, and Peter Brown
Experimental Neurology, 2016, Volume 277, Page 19
Genoveva Uzunova, Stefano Pallanti, and Eric Hollander
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 2016, Volume 17, Number 3, Page 174
Patricia Soto-Icaza, Francisco Aboitiz, and Pablo Billeke
Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2015, Volume 9
Manuel Fernando Casanova, Marie K. Hensley, Estate M. Sokhadze, Ayman S. El-Baz, Yao Wang, Xiaoli Li, and Lonnie Sears
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2014, Volume 8
Estate M. Sokhadze, Ayman S. El-Baz, Allan Tasman, Lonnie L. Sears, Yao Wang, Eva V. Lamina, and Manuel F. Casanova
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 2014, Volume 39, Number 3-4, Page 237
Paige M. Weinger, Vance Zemon, Latha Soorya, and James Gordon
Neuropsychologia, 2014, Volume 63, Page 10
Ann Clawson, Peter E. Clayson, Mikle South, Erin D. Bigler, and Michael J. Larson
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2015, Volume 45, Number 2, Page 363
Elizabeth Milne, Stephanie A. Dunn, Megan Freeth, and Luisa Rosas-Martinez
Neuropsychologia, 2013, Volume 51, Number 6, Page 1109
Alexander Dovgopoly and Eduardo Mercado
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 2013, Volume 13, Number 2, Page 371
Manuel Casanova, Joshua Baruth, Ayman El-Baz, Allan Tasman, Lonnie Sears, and Estate Sokhadze
Translational Neuroscience, 2012, Volume 3, Number 2
Estate M. Sokhadze, Joshua M. Baruth, Lonnie Sears, Guela E. Sokhadze, Ayman S. El-Baz, and Manuel F. Casanova
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 2012, Volume 37, Number 2, Page 91
Roy Kessels, Pieter Spee, and Angelique Hendriks
Translational Neuroscience, 2010, Volume 1, Number 3

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in