Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Translational Neuroscience

Editor-in-Chief: David, Olivier

1 Issue per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.833
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.247

CiteScore 2017: 1.00

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.428
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.244

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2081-6936
See all formats and pricing
More options …

An update on non-epileptic seizures: Diagnosis and brief notes on treatment

Bernt Engelsen
  • Department of Neurology, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021, Bergen, Norway
  • Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Arne Gramstad
  • Department of Neurology, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021, Bergen, Norway
  • Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Atle Lillebø / Bjørn Karlsen
Published Online: 2013-06-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-013-0117-2

Abstract

Non-epileptic seizures (NES) are episodes that appear as epileptic seizures, but are not caused by epileptic discharges in the brain. The inclusion of NES in the differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures is important, as an accurate diagnosis is required for the administration of appropriate treatment. NES in the differential diagnosis may be classified as (1) physiologic or pathophysiologic NES, e.g. syncope, sleep disturbances, motor symptoms, migraine attacks, etc., and (2) psychogenic NES (PNES), e.g. affective disorders with anxiety or panic, dissociative disorders (somatoform or conversion) as well as depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PNES is the condition most frequently misdiagnosed as epilepsy. We report NES as experienced in our epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) for adults in the neurology department of a university hospital in Norway. Our main emphasis is on PNES, highlighting the diagnostic procedures, currently recommended treatment options, and follow-up. A team approach with video-EEG monitoring and clinical observation by trained nurses, epileptologists and other personnel is preferred in the diagnosis and treatment of PNES. Evaluations are performed by a neuropsychologist and trained social worker. The EMU closely cooperates with cardiologists and sleep center specialists. They can also refer patients to psychosomatic medicine specialists. Components of the differential diagnosis addressed are syncope, motor symptoms, sleep disorders, migraine and other paroxysmal neurological symptoms.

Keywords: Non-epileptic seizures; Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; Epilepsy monitoring unit

  • [1] Volow M.R., Pseudoseizures: an overview, South. Med. J., 1986, 79, 600–607 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007611-198605000-00020CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2] Gates J.R., Luciano D., Devinsky O., The classification and treatment of nonepileptic events, In: Devinsky O., Theodore W.H. (Eds.), Epilepsy and Behavior, Wiley-Liss, New York, 1991 Google Scholar

  • [3] Kloster R., Pseudo-epileptic versus epileptic seizures: a comparison, In: Gram L., Johannessen S.I., Ostermann P.O., Sillanpaa M. (Eds.), Pseudo-epileptic seizures, Wrightson Biomedical Publishing Ltd, Petersfield, 1993 Google Scholar

  • [4] Reuber M., Elger C.E., Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update, Epilepsy Behav., 2003, 4, 205–216 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1525-5050(03)00104-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] Cuthill F.M., Espie C.A., Sensitivity and specificity of procedures for the differential diagnosis of epileptic and non-epileptic seizures: a systematic review, Seizure, 2005, 14, 293–303 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2005.04.006CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Kaplan P.W., Fisher R.S. (Eds.), Imitators of epilepsy, 2nd Ed., Demos Medical Publishing, New York, 2005 Google Scholar

  • [7] Reuber M., Schachter S.C., Borderland of epilepsy revisited, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012 Google Scholar

  • [8] Engelsen B.A., Karlsen B., Gramstad A., Lillebø A., Aarli J.A., Nonepileptic seizures (NES): overview and selected cases from an epilepsy unit, In: Sinha K.K., Chandra P. (Eds.), Advances in clinical neurosciences, The Catholic Press, Ranchi, 2000 Google Scholar

  • [9] Schacter S.C., LaFrance W.C.Jr., Gates and Rowan’s nonepileptic seizures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010 Google Scholar

  • [10] McDade G., Brown S.W., Non-epileptic seizures: management and predictive factors of outcome, Seizure, 1992, 1, 7–10 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1059-1311(92)90047-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Savard G., Andermann G., Convulsive pseudoseizures: a review of current concepts, Behav. Neurol., 1990, 3, 133–141 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12] Benbadis S.R., Agrawal V., Tatum W.O.4th, How many patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures also have epilepsy?, Neurology, 2001, 57, 915–917 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.57.5.915CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13] Meierkord H., Will B., Fish D., Shorvon S., The clinical features and prognosis of pseudoseizures diagnosed using video-EEG telemetry, Neurology, 1991, 41, 1643–1646 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.41.10.1643CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14] Alper K., Devinsky O., Perrine K., Vazquez B., Luciano D., Psychiatric classification of nonconversion nonepileptic seizures, Arch. Neurol., 1995, 52, 199–201 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1995.00540260105025CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15] Leeman B.A., Provocative techniques should not be used for the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Epilepsy Behav., 2009, 15, 110–114; discussion 115–118 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.01.013CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16] Benbadis S.R., Provocative techniques should be used for the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Epilepsy Behav., 2009, 15, 106–109; discussion 115–108 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.02.002CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Mattson R.H., Value of intensive monitoring, In: Wada J.A., Penry J.K. (Eds.), Advances in epileptology: The 10th epilepsy international symposium, Raven Press, New York, 1980 Google Scholar

  • [18] Martin R., Burneo J.G., Prasad A., Powell T., Faught E., Knowlton R., et al., Frequency of epilepsy in patients with psychogenic seizures monitored by video-EEG, Neurology, 2003, 61, 1791–1792 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000098890.13946.F5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [19] Engelsen B.A., Syncope, Handb. Clin. Neurol., 2012, 107, 297–304 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-52898-8.00018-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20] Aminoff M.J., Scheinman M.M., Griffin J.C., Herre J.M., Electrocerebral accompaniments of syncope associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias, Ann. Int. Med., 1988, 108, 791–796 http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-108-6-791CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21] Benbadis S.R., Lancman M.E., King L.M., Swanson S.J., Preictal pseudosleep: a new finding in psychogenic seizures, Neurology, 1996, 47, 63–67 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.47.1.63CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22] Bancaud J., Talairach J., Clinical semiology of frontal lobe seizures, Adv. Neurol., 1992, 57, 3–58 Google Scholar

  • [23] Rheims S., Ryvlin P., Scherer C., Minotti L., Hoffmann D., Guenot M., et al., Analysis of clinical patterns and underlying epileptogenic zones of hypermotor seizures, Epilepsia, 2008, 49, 2030–2040 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01675.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Leis A.A., Ross M.A., Summers A.K., Psychogenic seizures: ictal characteristics and diagnostic pitfalls, Neurology, 1992, 42, 95–99 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.42.1.95CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25] Groppel G., Kapitany T., Baumgartner C., Cluster analysis of clinical seizure semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Epilepsia, 2000, 41, 610–614 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.2000.tb00216.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [26] Fenwick P., The significance of a seizure, In: Reynolds E.H., Trimble M.R. (Eds.), The bridge between neurology and psychiatry, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1989 Google Scholar

  • [27] Sigurdardottir K.R., Olafsson E., Incidence of psychogenic seizures in adults: a population-based study in Iceland, Epilepsia, 1998, 39, 749–752 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1998.tb01161.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28] Szaflarski J.P., Ficker D.M., Cahill W.T., Privitera M.D., Four-year incidence of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in adults in Hamilton County, OH, Neurology, 2000, 55, 1561–1563 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.55.10.1561CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29] Benbadis S.R., Allen Hauser W., An estimate of the prevalence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, Seizure, 2000, 9, 280–281 http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/seiz.2000.0409CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30] Krumholz A., Niedermeyer E., Psychogenic seizures: a clinical study with follow-up data, Neurology, 1983, 33, 498–502 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.33.4.498CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31] Jedrzejczak J., Owczarek K., Majkowski J., Psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures: clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) video-tape recordings, Eur. J. Neurol., 1999, 6, 473–479 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-1331.1999.640473.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [32] Gubermann A., Psychogenic pseudoseizures in non-epileptic patients, Can. J. Psychiatry, 1982, 27, 401–404 Google Scholar

  • [33] Lelliott P.T., Fenwick P., Cerebral pathology in pseudoseizures, Acta Neurol. Scand., 1991, 83, 129–132 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1991.tb04661.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34] Ramani S.V., Quesney L.F., Olson D., Gumnit R.J., Diagnosis of hysterical seizures in epileptic patients, Am. J. Psychiatry, 1980, 137, 705–709 Google Scholar

  • [35] Lesser R.P., Lueders H., Dinner D.S., Evidence for epilepsy is rare in patients with psychogenic seizures, Neurology, 1983, 33, 502–504 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.33.4.502CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36] Mohan K.K., Markand O.N., Salanova V., Diagnostic utility of video EEG monitoring in paroxysmal events, Acta Neurol. Scand., 1996, 94, 320–325 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1996.tb07073.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37] Gates J.R., Ramani V., Whalen S., Loewenson R., Ictal characteristics of pseudoseizures, Arch. Neurol., 1985, 42, 1183–1187 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1985.04060110065017CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [38] Betts T., Psychiatric aspects of nonepileptic seizures, In: Engel J.J., Pedley T.A. (Eds.), Epilepsy: a comprehensive textbook, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1997 Google Scholar

  • [39] King D.W., Gallagher B.B., Murvin A.J., Smith D.B., Marcus D.J., Hartlage L.C., et al., Pseudoseizures: diagnostic evaluation, Neurology, 1982, 32, 18–23 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.32.1.18CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [40] Gulick T.A., Spinks I.P., King D.W., Pseudoseizures: ictal phenomena, Neurology, 1982, 32, 24–30 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.32.1.24CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [41] Desai B.T., Porter R.J., Penry J.K., Psychogenic seizures. A study of 42 attacks in six patients, with intensive monitoring, Arch. Neurol., 1982, 39, 202–209 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1982.00510160008002CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [42] Woollacott I.O., Scott C., Fish D.R., Smith S.M., Walker M.C., When do psychogenic nonepileptic seizures occur on a video/EEG telemetry unit?, Epilepsy Behav., 2010, 17, 228–235 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.12.002CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [43] Reuber M., Jamnadas-Khoda J., Broadhurst M., Grunewald R., Howell S., Koepp M., et al., Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure manifestations reported by patients and witnesses, Epilepsia, 2011, 52, 2028–2035 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03162.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [44] Avbersek A., Sisodiya S., Does the primary literature provide support for clinical signs used to distinguish psychogenic nonepileptic seizures from epileptic seizures?, J. Neurol., Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2010, 81, 719–725 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2009.197996CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [45] Kotagal P., Arunkumar G., Hammel J., Mascha E., Complex partial seizures of frontal lobe onset statistical analysis of ictal semiology, Seizure, 2003, 12, 268–281 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1059-1311(02)00276-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [46] Reuber M., Fernandez G., Bauer J., Helmstaedter C., Elger C.E., Diagnostic delay in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Neurology, 2002, 58, 493–495 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.58.3.493CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [47] Betts T., Boden S., Pseudoseizures (non-epileptic attack disorder), In: Trimble M. (Ed.), Women and epilepsy, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1991 Google Scholar

  • [48] Theodore W.H., Porter R.J., Albert P., Kelley K., Bromfield E., Devinsky O., et al., The secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure: a videotape analysis, Neurology, 1994, 44, 1403–1407 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.44.8.1403CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [49] Peguero E., Abou-Khalil B., Fakhoury T., Mathews G., Self-injury and incontinence in psychogenic seizures, Epilepsia, 1995, 36, 586–591 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1995.tb02572.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [50] Ettinger A.B., Devinsky O., Weisbrot D.M., Ramakrishna R.K., Goyal A., A comprehensive profile of clinical, psychiatric, and psychosocial characteristics of patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Epilepsia, 1999, 40, 1292–1298 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1999.tb00860.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [51] Brown M.C., Levin B.E., Ramsay R.E., Katz D.A., Duchowny M.S., Characteristics of patients with nonepileptic seizures, J. Epilepsy, 1991, 4, 225–229 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0896-6974(91)90080-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [52] Sahlholdt L., Alving J., Pseudo-epileptic seizures in children, In: Gram L., Johannessen S.I., Ostermann P.O., Sillanpaa M. (Eds.), Pseudoepileptic seizures, Wrightson Biomedical Publishing Ltd, Petersfield, 1993 Google Scholar

  • [53] Flugel D., Bauer J., Kaseborn U., Burr W., Elger C.E., Closed eyes during a seizure indicate psychogenic etiology: A study with suggestive seizure provocation, J. Epilepsy, 1996, 9, 165–169 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0896-6974(96)00008-4CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [54] Jawad S.S., Jamil N., Clarke E.J., Lewis A., Whitecross S., Richens A., Psychiatric morbidity and psychodynamics of patients with convulsive pseudoseizures, Seizure, 1995, 4, 201–206 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1059-1311(05)80061-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [55] Reuber M., Fernandez G., Bauer J., Singh D.D., Elger C.E., Interictal EEG abnormalities in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Epilepsia, 2002, 43, 1013–1020 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1528-1157.2002.52301.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [56] Wilkus R.J., Dodrill C.B., Factors affecting the outcome of MMPI and neuropsychological assessments of psychogenic and epileptic seizure patients, Epilepsia, 1989, 30, 339–347 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1989.tb05307.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [57] Butcher J.N., Dahlstrom W.G., Graham J.R., Tellegen A., Kaemmer B., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): manual for administration and scoring, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1989 Google Scholar

  • [58] Greene R.L., The MMPI-2/MMPI: An interpretive manual, Allyn and Bacon, London, 1991 Google Scholar

  • [59] Drake M.E.Jr., Pakalnis A., Phillips B.B., Neuropsychological and psychiatric correlates of intractable pseudoseizures, Seizure, 1992, 1, 11–13 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1059-1311(92)90048-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [60] Storzbach D., Binder L.M., Salinsky M.C., Campbell B.R., Mueller R.M., Improved prediction of nonepileptic seizures with combined MMPI and EEG measures, Epilepsia, 2000, 41, 332–337 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.2000.tb00164.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [61] Thompson A.W., Hantke N., Phatak V., Chaytor N., The Personality Assessment Inventory as a tool for diagnosing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Epilepsia, 2010, 51, 161–164 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02151.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [62] Walczak T.S., Papacostas S., Williams D.T., Scheuer M.L., Lebowitz N., Notarfrancesco A., Outcome after diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, Epilepsia, 1995, 36, 1131–1137 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1995.tb00472.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [63] Bowman E.S., Pseudoseizures, Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 1998, 21, 649–657, vii http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70029-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [64] Griffith J.L., Polles A., Griffith M.E., Pseudoseizures, families, and unspeakable dilemmas, Psychosomatics, 1998, 39, 144–153 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0033-3182(98)71361-1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [65] Betts T., Boden S., Diagnosis, management and prognosis of a group of 128 patients with non-epileptic attack disorder. Part II. Previous childhood sexual abuse in the aetiology of these disorders, Seizure, 1992, 1, 27–32 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1059-1311(92)90051-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [66] Betts T., Duffy N., Non-epileptic attack disorder (psuedoseizures) and sexual abuse, In: Gram L., Johannessen S.I., Ostermann P.O., Sillanpaa M. (Eds.), Pseudoepileptic seizures, Wrightson Biomedical Publising Ltd, Petersfield, 1993 Google Scholar

  • [67] American Psychiatric Association, The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, Washington (DC), 1994 Google Scholar

  • [68] Rosenberg H.J., Rosenberg S.D., Williamson P.D., Wolford G.L. 2nd, A comparative study of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder prevalence in epilepsy patients and psychogenic nonepileptic seizure patients, Epilepsia, 2000, 41, 447–452 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.2000.tb00187.xGoogle Scholar

  • [69] Trimble M., Psychosis and epilepsy, In: Laidlaw J., Richens A. (Eds.), A textbook of epilepsy, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1982 Google Scholar

  • [70] Ozkara C., Dreifuss F.E., Differential diagnosis in pseudoepileptic seizures, Epilepsia, 1993, 34, 294–298 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1993.tb02414.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [71] Goodwin J., Simms M., Bergman R., Hysterical seizures: a sequel to incest, Am. J. Orthopsychiatry, 1979, 49, 698–703 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1979.tb02655.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [72] Gross M., Incestuous rape: a cause for hysterical seizures in four adolescent girls, Am. J. Orthopsychiatry, 1979, 49, 704–708 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1979.tb02656.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [73] Shen W., Bowman E.S., Markand O.N., Presenting the diagnosis of pseudoseizure, Neurology, 1990, 40, 756–759 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.40.5.756CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [74] LaFrance W.C.Jr., Rusch M.D., Machan J.T., What is “treatment as usual” for nonepileptic seizures?, Epilepsy Behav., 2008, 12, 388–394 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.12.017CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [75] Lempert T., Schmidt D., Natural history and outcome of psychogenic seizures: a clinical study in 50 patients, J. Neurol. 1990, 237, 35–38 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00319665CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [76] Kristensen O., Alving J., Pseudoseizures—risk factors and prognosis. A case-control study, Acta Neurol. Scand., 1992, 85, 177–180 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1992.tb04023.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [77] Krahn L.E., Rummans T.A., Sharbrough F.W., Jowsey S.G., Cascino G.D., Pseudoseizures after epilepsy surgery, Psychosomatics, 1995, 36, 487–493 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0033-3182(95)71630-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [78] Ramani V., Gumnit R.J., Management of hysterical seizures in epileptic patients, Arch. Neurol., 1982, 39, 78–81 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1982.00510140012003CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [79] Goldstein L.H., Chalder T., Chigwedere C., Khondoker M.R., Moriarty J., Toone B.K., et al., Cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a pilot RCT, Neurology, 2010, 74, 1986–1994 http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181e39658CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [80] Oto M., Conway P., McGonigal A., Russell A.J., Duncan R., Gender differences in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, Seizure, 2005, 14, 33–39 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2004.02.008CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [81] Slater J.D., Brown M.C., Jacobs W., Ramsay R.E., Induction of pseudoseizures with intravenous saline placebo, Epilepsia, 1995, 36, 580–585 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1995.tb02571.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [82] Dodrill C.B., Batzel L.W., Queisser H.R., Temkin N.R., An objective method for the assessment of psychological and social problems among epileptics, Epilepsia, 1980, 21, 123–135 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1980.tb04053.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-06-09

Published in Print: 2013-06-01


Citation Information: Translational Neuroscience, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 260–268, ISSN (Online) 2081-6936, ISSN (Print) 2081-3856, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-013-0117-2.

Export Citation

© 2013 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Kasia Kozlowska, Catherine Chudleigh, Catherine Cruz, Melissa Lim, Georgia McClure, Blanche Savage, Ubaid Shah, Averil Cook, Stephen Scher, Pascal Carrive, and Deepak Gill
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2017, Page 135910451773211

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in