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An update on non-epileptic seizures: Diagnosis and brief notes on treatment

Bernt Engelsen
  • Department of Neurology, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021, Bergen, Norway
  • Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
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/ Arne Gramstad
  • Department of Neurology, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021, Bergen, Norway
  • Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
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/ Atle Lillebø / Bjørn Karlsen
Published Online: 2013-06-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-013-0117-2


Non-epileptic seizures (NES) are episodes that appear as epileptic seizures, but are not caused by epileptic discharges in the brain. The inclusion of NES in the differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures is important, as an accurate diagnosis is required for the administration of appropriate treatment. NES in the differential diagnosis may be classified as (1) physiologic or pathophysiologic NES, e.g. syncope, sleep disturbances, motor symptoms, migraine attacks, etc., and (2) psychogenic NES (PNES), e.g. affective disorders with anxiety or panic, dissociative disorders (somatoform or conversion) as well as depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PNES is the condition most frequently misdiagnosed as epilepsy. We report NES as experienced in our epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) for adults in the neurology department of a university hospital in Norway. Our main emphasis is on PNES, highlighting the diagnostic procedures, currently recommended treatment options, and follow-up. A team approach with video-EEG monitoring and clinical observation by trained nurses, epileptologists and other personnel is preferred in the diagnosis and treatment of PNES. Evaluations are performed by a neuropsychologist and trained social worker. The EMU closely cooperates with cardiologists and sleep center specialists. They can also refer patients to psychosomatic medicine specialists. Components of the differential diagnosis addressed are syncope, motor symptoms, sleep disorders, migraine and other paroxysmal neurological symptoms.

Keywords: Non-epileptic seizures; Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; Epilepsy monitoring unit

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Published Online: 2013-06-09

Published in Print: 2013-06-01

Citation Information: Translational Neuroscience, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 260–268, ISSN (Online) 2081-6936, ISSN (Print) 2081-3856, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-013-0117-2.

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